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Flashcards in Prologue Deck (36):
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Psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental process

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Plato/Socrates

Concluded that mind is separable from body and continues after the body dies, nature side

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Aristotle

Student of Plato, claims that the mind is not separable from the body, also that we learn from our experiences in our memories, knowledge is not pre-existent

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Descartes

Believed mind is separable from the body, believed the brain held "animal spirits," he discovered nerve paths, and believed that behavioral problems were within the brain vs being supernatural

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Francis Bacon

Introduced the scientific method

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John Locke

Wrote "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding" believed that the "mind at birth is a blank slate, which experience writes on"

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Empiricism

The view that knowledge originates in experience and so science should therefore rely on observation and experimentation

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Wilhelm Wundt

Performed psychology's first experiment, based on reaction time, and opened the first laboratory

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Structuralism

An early form of psychology studies revolving around using introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

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Edward Titchener

Ran tests testing peoples ability to describe basic items with their senses introduced structuralism

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Introspection

Looking inward, self-reflective

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Functionalism

A newer school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function and how they enable organisms to adapt, survive, and flourish

12

William James

Wrote "Principles of Psychology," developed/created functionalism, and let a female study his teachings (which was unheard of)

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Mary Calkins

First women to study psychology, earned the P.h.D. but was not awarded the degree until after her death, first female president of APA

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Margaret Floyd Washburn

Second lady to study P.h.D in psychology but obtained her degree and wrote the book The Animal Mind

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Humanistic Psychology

Emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance

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Nature-Nuture Issue

Debate between the view of learning from experience and being boring with knowledge

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Natural Selection

Charles Darwin, "the single best idea anyone had"

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Levels of Analysis

Looking at the different biological levels of an organism

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Evolutionary Perspective

How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of ones genes

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Behavior Perspective

How we learn observable responses

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Neuroscience Perspective

How the body and brain enable emotions, memories and sensory experiences

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Psychological Perspective

How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

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Behavioral Perspective

How we learn observable responses

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Cognitive Perspective

How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

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Social-Cultural Perspective

How behavior and thinking vary across situations

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Basic Research

Builds on psychology's knowledge base

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Applied Research

Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

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Biological Psychologists

Explore the links between the brain and mind

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Developmental Psychologists

Studying our changing abilities from the womb to the tomb

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Cognitive Psychologists

Experimenting with how we perceive, think and solve problems

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Personality Psychologists

Investigating our persistent traits

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Social Psychologists

Exploring how we view and affect one another

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Counseling Psychology

A branch that assists people with problems in living and achieving a greater well being besides school, work, or marriage

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Clinical Psychology

A branch that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

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Psychiatry

A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy