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Flashcards in Prologue Deck (37):
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Psychology

Scientific study if behavior and mental processes

1

Plato

Socrates student; mind separable from body

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Socrates

Mind is separable from body and continues after body dies

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Aristotle

Plato's student; knowledge grows from experience

4

Descartes

Agreed with Socrates; "animal spirits"; dualism

5

Francis bacon

Scientific method; One of the founders of modern science; Novum Organuum

6

John Locke

Wrote "An essay concerning human understanding"; blank slate

7

Empiricism

The view that knowledge originates in experience science relies on observation and experimentation

8

William Wundt

Founder of 1st psychology laboratory; created machine that measures time lag between peoples hearing of a ball dropping and pressing a key

9

Structuralism

Aimed to discover elements of mind; unreliable

10

Edward Titchener

Introduced structuralism; opened 1st psychology university

11

Introspection

Looking inward

12

Functionalism

Considered evolved functions of out thoughts and feelings

13

William james

One of the 1st psychologists; developed functionalism; "principles of psychology"

14

Mary calkins

1st female president of APA (american psychology associations) in 1905; denied Harvard degree

15

Margaret Floy Washburn

1st woman to receive psychology Ph. D.; "animal mind"; 2nd APA female president in 1921

16

humanistic psychology

emphasized importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential

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nature-nurture issue

longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors

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natural selection

Darwin's theory; survival of the fittest

19

levels of analysis

different complementary views from biological to psychological to social-culture for analyzing any given phenomenon

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Evolutionary perspective

How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of ones genes

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Behavior genetics perspective

How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences

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Neuroscience perspective

How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences

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Psychodynamic perspective

How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

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Behavioral perspective

How we learn observable responses

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Cognitive perspective

How we encode, process, store, and receive information

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Social-cultural perspectives

How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

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Basic research

Builds Psychology's knowledge base

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Applied research

Tackles practical problems

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Biological psychologists

Explore links between brain and mind

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Developmental psychologists

Study changing abilities from womb to tomb

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Cognitive psychologists

Experiment with how we perceive, think, and problem solve

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Personality psychologists

Investigate our persistent traits

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Social psychologists

Explore how we view and affect one another

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Counseling psychology

Help people cope with challenges by recognizing their strengths and resources

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Clinical psychologists

Assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders

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Psychiatry

Medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders