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Flashcards in Prologue Vocab Deck (37):
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Psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

1

concluded that mind is separable from body and continues after the body dies, and knowledge is innate-born within us

Plato(Socrate's Student)and Socrates

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derived principles from careful observations. "The soul is not separable from the body, and the same holds good of particular parts of the soul." Knowledge is not preexisting; instead it grows from the experiences stored in our memories.

Aristotle(Plato's Student)

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"Father of Modern Philosophy", agreed with Socrates and Plato. He dissected animals and concluded that the fluid in the brains cavities contained "animal spirits."

Descartes

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became one of the founders of modern science. Scientific method:implied drawing knowledge from the natural world through experimentation, observation, and testing a hypothesis.

Francis Bacon

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adapted the theory of Tabula Rasa. Argued that the mind at birth is a blank state-on which experience writes.

John Locke

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Whose ideas led to form empiricism?

Locke and Bacon

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Empericism

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

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Set up the first psychological laboratory in an apartment near the university at Leipzig, Germany. Trained subjects in introspection.

Wilhelm Wundt

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Introspection

looking inward. Used by Wilhelm Wundt who asked subjects to accurately record their cognitive reactions to simple stimuli.

10

introduced and brought structuralism to the U.S. and opened the first U.S. laboratory at Cornell University.

Edward Bradford Titchener

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Structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.

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"Principles of Psychology." one of the 1st U.S. psychologists. Established the theory of functionalism

William James

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Functionalism

A school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

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First woman to receive a Ph.D in psychology. Second president of APA

Margaret Floy Washburn

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Student of William James. Became first female president of American Psychological Association(APA) Completed her doctoral studies but Harvard denied her the Ph.D.

Mary Whiton Calkins

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Humanistic Psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people, used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth

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Nature-Nurture Issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors

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Natural Selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited traits variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

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Levels of Analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given pheomenon

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Humanistic Perspective

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
we choose most of our behaviors and that these choices are guided by physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs.
Looking at self-actualization and how to reach full potential of self

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Evolutionary Perspective

how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes.

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Behavioral Perspective

observes behavior
analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment
how much our genes and our environment influence our individual behaviors
Reinforcements

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Biopsychology (Neuroscience)

how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.
explain human thought and behavior strictly in terms of biological procsses.

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Psychoanalytic (Psychodynamic)

believe that the unconscious mind controls much of our thoughts and actions

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Cognitive Perspective

how we process, store, retrieve, and use information and how cognitive processes influence our behavior

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Social Cultural Perspective

looking at the culture and social group that one is in, and how it influences a person's behavior

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Basic Research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

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Applied Research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

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Biological Psychologists

a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior

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Developmental Psychologists

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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Cognitive Psychologists

experiment with how we think, percieve, and solve problems

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Personality Psychologists

investigate our persistent traits

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Social Psychlogists

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

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Counseling Psychologists

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living

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Clinical Psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

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Psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders, practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments