Prostate and Bladder Cancer Flashcards Preview

Renal > Prostate and Bladder Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prostate and Bladder Cancer Deck (27):
1

Is bladder cancer more common in males or females?

males (4:1)

2

What are the two main types of uroepithelial tumours and how common are they?

transitional (80%)
squamous (9%)

3

What are the two types of transitional cell tumour?

papillary (80%)
non papillary

4

Which type of transitional cell tumour has a stippled appearance?

papillary

5

What is the inferior portion of the prostate called and what is it continuous with?

apex
witht he striated sphincter

6

What is the superior portion of the prostate called and what is it continuous with?

base
bladder neck

7

What is the prostatic urethra covered by?

transitional epithelium

8

Where is the verantanum?

just distal to urethral angle

9

What drain to each side of the prostatic urethra?

ejaculatory ducts

10

Which zone of the prostate is where most cancers occur?

peripheral

11

Which zone of the prostate is where BPH occurs?

transitional

12

Which zone is cone shaped and surrounds the ejaculatory ducts?

central zone

13

What is the most common malignancy affecting men in the US?

prostate cancer

14

Where is there the lowest incidence of prostate cancer?

asia

15

Is prostate cancer more common in black people?

yes

16

By how much does risk of prostate cancer increase with 1 first degree relative being affected?

doubles risk

17

By how much does risk of prostate cancer increase with 2 first degree relatives being affected?

4 fold

18

How are most prostate cancers picked up?

testing of PSA and DRE
patients normally asymptomatic

19

What symptoms may occur with prostate cancer?

haematuria/haematospermia
bone pain, anorexia, weight loss
lower urinary tract symptoms

20

What is PSA?

glycoprotein enzyme made by cells in prostate
increases with prostate cancer

21

What investigation can be done on men with an abdnormal DRE or high PSA?

transrectal US guided biopsy

22

What are most prostate cancers?

adenocarcinomas

23

Where does prostate cancer metastasise to?

pelvic lymph nodes
skeleton

24

What lesions tend to occur with prostate cancer?

sclerotic

25

What grades prostate cancer>

Gleason's scoring

26

What is growth of prostate cancer cells under the influence of?

testosterone and dihydrotestoserone

27

What hormone therapy can be used in prostate cancer?

LHRH agonists
Anti-androgens