Prostate and Bladder Cancer Flashcards Preview

Renal and Urology > Prostate and Bladder Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prostate and Bladder Cancer Deck (14):
1

Where do most prostate adenocarcinomas arise

the peripheral zone

2

What is the clinical presentation of prostate cancer

most are asymptomatic and picked up by PSA tests or abnormal DRE
may present with symptoms of lower urinary tract obstruction
Haematurea
Bone pain, anorexia and weight loss are signs of metastatic disease

3

What is PSA

a glycoprotein enzyme produced by the secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland
involved in the liquification of semen

4

What are normal levels of PSA

in health PSA is high in semen, but serum levels are low
Serum levels increase with prostate cancer

5

What is the drawback of PSA testing

it is very sensitive
not very sepcific

6

What other conditions can cause elevated PSA

benign prostatic hyperplasia
prostatitis/UTI
retention
catheter
DRE

7

When is a PSA test indicated

sympotmatic patients
in asymptomatic counseliing for PSA testing prior to testing is mandatory

8

What is a TRUSS

Trans rectal USS guided prostate biopsy

9

What are the indications for a TRUSS

abnormal DRE and elevated PSA
previous biopsies showing PIN and ASAP
previous normal biopsies but rising PSA trends

10

what are the potential complications of TRUSS

risk of sepsis
rectal bleeding
vasovagal fainting
haematospermia and haematurea for a few weeks after

11

What is the histology of most prostate cancers

multifocal adenocarcinomas

12

Where is the most common type of metastisis in prostate cancer

pelvic lymph nodes and skeleton

13

what is the characteristic of the bone metastasis

sclerotic lesions are characteristic

14

How are prostate cancers graded

gleason's scoring
good prognostic indicator