Protein and energy imbalances in ruminants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Protein and energy imbalances in ruminants Deck (34):
0

What affects productivity? 5

Genetics
Diet
Environment
Management
Disease

1

What should the chopped length of fibre be?

2-4cm. To encourage rumen movement using the scratch factor

2

What is the ideal amount of time for a cow to spend lying a day?

14 hours a day - remember the time budget

3

How much trough space should a cow have?

60cm per cow

4

What are 4 most important points to assess when looking at water intake?

Access, cleanliness, TDS (total dissolved solids), cows like to go and drink in groups

5

How should you determine DMI?

Measure it - feed companies can provide this information. estimates are often inaccurate.

6

What is the formula to estimate DMI?

0.025BW + 0.1 milk yield but this is an estimate only

7

What should you consider when making a diet assessment? 3

Accuracy, representative and when?

8

What fibre length will cows sort for?

2cm is their ideal and they will eat this preferentially over longer lengths (e.g. 5-7cm)

9

True or false - in a true TMR system, nothing is fed in the parlour

True

10

What happens if silage is anaerobic? 2

Secondary fermentation, spoilage through heating and moulds can produce mycotoxins.

11

When is it easy to over estimate the value of grazed grass?

Especially in long dry summer

12

What is another term for Mg deficiency?

Grass staggers

13

What is a 'buffer feed'?

Something you can give before turning a cow out to grass each day if the grass quality isn't good enough.

14

What does the cow comfort index suggest?

That 1 hour before feeding, 85% cows should be lying down. It gives an indication as to the cubicle comfort.

15

What should milk fat level be?

4.2%

16

What is the main indicator of milk fat levels?

Concentrate : forage.
If this ratio is > 60: 40, the milk fat level will drop significantly as the acetate : propionate ratio is key

17

What MAY low bulk milk fat indicate?

SARA. However different groups within herd may have very different milk fats so low milk fat mat be hidden in overall bulk level.

18

What should milk protein level be?

3.4%

19

When does milk protein level change?

Levels drop after a period of inadequate energy intake. Very difficult to correct quickly

20

How should diet be investigated?

Looking, smelling, handling, asking more than one person, check ration and computer sheets etc.

21

Outline the dung scoring system

Score of 1-5 with 1 being most loose and 5 being most solid. 3 is ideal and should make a slow hand clap once dung hits floor and shouldn't stick to boots. Apparently this score means a rose should stand up unaided in it!

22

When should you BCS cows?

At different phases of cow life cycle - dry cows, freshly call, 2-4 weeks post calving and late lactation. Ideal Score is 2.5-3

23

When is the most critical time to be aware of a cows BCS?

6 weeks either side of calving

24

What happens if a dry cow has a problem with her BCS?

Poor DMI after calving, metabolic diseases ( ketosis, fatty liver, fat cow syndrome, LDA), poor milk production, poor fertility

25

What happens if a cow looses weight over dry period?

Causes excessive fat mobilisation and makes other metabolic problems more likely too.

26

How should dry cows be divided?

1.) from dry off until 14d before calving
2.) from 14d before calving up until the day of calving

27

What are metabolic profiles?

Planned regular blood tests that look at a number of metabolites in normal healthy cows in the herd and give an objective indication as to how well the cows are handling the diet. Needs to be done on a planned regular basis.

28

When should metabolic profiles be done?

Normally about four times a year:
- soon after spring turn out to grass
- mid to late summer when pasture quality is highly variable
- soon after housing
- late in winter housing period

29

When else should you do a metabolic profile?

After any major diet changes

30

How long should you wait after any major change before taking a sample to do a metabolic profile?

Must wait at least 10 days

31

Which cows should be sampled for metabolic profile?

Normal healthy cows that represent those on farm. Don't include sick, unhealthy or poor doers.

32

How many/which groups should you sample?

- early lactation ( 10-20 days after calving, not later than this)
- mid lactation (100-200 days after calving)
- dry cows (within 14 days of calving)

Sample 6 cows from each group

33

What are common errors that are made with metabolic profiles?

- sampling cows that calves more than 20 days ago
- failure to include some lactation 1 cows in each group
- sampling immediately after a major management change, wait at least ten days
- including problem or poor cows