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Flashcards in Protein and Energy Imblanace Ruminants Deck (25)
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What chop length should fibre in the diet be?

2-4cm - optimum scratch factor to stimulate rumenal movements


How long should a cow spend lying down per day?

14 hours


What is the drop test?

Drop to knees on cubicle - see how comfortable it is


What is the CCI?

Cow Comfrot Index = No. cows lying down ruminating 1hr prior to feeding
- should be at least 60%, 85% best


WHy may the feed a cow intake be different than the prescribed diet?

Palatability of diet
Distribution between cows - space


How much head space should each cow have at a trough?



What trough factos may influence food intake?

Physical condition - sharp edgers
Clean - old food should not be left under fresh!


How does cow behaviour affect drinking troughs?

- Should be enough space for group of cows to drink together - social animals
- check floor surrounding trough - can they access it?


What is TDS?

Total dissolved solids ?? CHECL


Should DMI be estimated or measured?

> Measured - estimates often innacurate
> DMI for all foods (inc. oils etc.) should be incorporated
> Squeeze silage - if water comes out >20% water content


How may required DMI be calculated in lactating cows?

DMI = 2.5% BW + 10% milk yield
[estimate only]


Why may analysis of feed components be inaccurate?

- analysis inaccurate
- sample not representatice (levels of silage clamp, no. of g rass cuts)
- when sample taken


What is true TMR? How do majority of systems differ?

Everything fed in total mixed ration
- majority of dairy herds fed some concentrates in the parlour too


What may moulds in the silage produce?



Is self feed silage a good ide?

No - if silage sufficiently tightly packed to protect from spoilage then cows will not be able to eat it.
- often usd in conjunction with an electric fence -> stress -> v food intake


What problems may grazing grass present?

- overestimate energy value of grazed grass esp. in long dry summer (stemmy fibrous grasses)
- bloat from clover rich pastures
- Mg deficiency (grass staggers)
- over eating lush pasture or grains -> bloat/acidosis


How can overeating at pasture be prevented?

Buffer feed - silage, hay or TMR to supplement grass before turning out


What level should milk fat be at? What is this proportional to and may cause this to drop?

- proportional to fibre level in diet
- if concentrate:forage ratio >60:40 will drop significantly (as acetate levels drop and propionate levels ^)
- spring grass low in fibre -> v milk fat
- Low bulk tank milk fat: SARA (but differnet groups within herd likely to differ significantly and counteract this affect/hide low milk fat cows)


What level should milk protein be at? When may this drop and is it easy to correct?

- drops after inadequate energy intake
- very difficult to correct quicjly


How is dung scored? How is optimum dung recognisable?

1 - 5, 1 loose and watery, 5 stiff and dry
3 optuimum - sounds like slow hand clap


How can BCS be used to assess feeding?

Compare cows in different stages of life cycle
- dry
- freshly calved (early lac)
- 2.4 weeks post calve (mid lac)
- late lac


What is the optimum BCS for a cow to calve at?



What is the most important stage of lactation to look at? Why? What BCS should they start/finish at?

Dry cows
- critical 6 weeks either side of calving
- problems here ->
> poor DMI post calve
> metabolic disease
> poor milk production
> poor fert
- SHOULD NOT LOSE WEIGHT DURING THE DRY PERIOD, will lead to fatty liver and metabolic problems
- Should be dried off at same BCS they will calve at (~3)


How should dry cows be divided?

1. Dry off - 14d pre calving [far off or early dry group]
2. 14d pre calving -> calving [transition or close up cows] In this group diet similar to that they will receive post calving to allow gradual rumen changes


What are metabolic profiles and how may they be used?

- planned regular blood tests (4x year) on 6 cows from each of 3 groups (early 10-20d post calve, mid 100-200d, drys within 14d of calving)
> spring turn out to grass
> mid/late summer (pasture qulatiy variable)
> housing
> late in winter housing
+ whenever major diet change implemented
- objective indication of how well cows are handling diet
- do NOT sample sick cows!!!
- include heifers
- always WAIT 10d after change