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fundamentals of nutrition > Proteins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Proteins Deck (58):
1

What is a cyclic compound?

A compound that contains a ring structure

2

What type of protein gets absorbed more readily than others?

Dipeptides

3

What do amino acids do?

Provide structure
Establish communication between individual cells and entire organ systems
May be equally or more important than proteins when it comes to nourishment

4

Essential amino acids

Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methionine
Phenylalanine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine
Histidine

5

Nonessential amino acids

Alanine
Asparagine
Aspartic acid
Glutamic acid
Homocysteine
Serine

6

Conditionally essential

Arginine
Carnitine
Citrulline
Cysteine
Glutamine
Glycine
Ornithine
Proline
Taurine
Tyrosine

7

What is time frame for all amino acids to be be consumed

1 -2 day period

8

What happens if an amino acid is deficient in our diet?

Body will continue to make proteins
But body will have to break down muscle protein to obtain deficient amino acid

9

Will muscle proteins be replaced after body breaks it down to get supply of deficient amino acid?

Yes, If over s period of 1-2 days we consume all necessary amino acids by eating a balanced and and compete selection of protein containing foods

10

What is process called when something is built up?

Anabolism

11

Process when something is broken down

Catabolism

12

With increase in protein intake will body have a positive or negative nitrogen balance?

Positive

13

How much protein does average adult synthesize daily?

250-350 grams

14

What happens to excess protein?

Can be turned into fat and stored in body as potential fuel or glycogen in liver

15

What does protein inside cells do?

Help keep correct amount of water in cells

16

Recommended dietary allowance of proteins

0.8 gram per kilogram of ideal body weight for individuals 19 and older

Increases by 25 grams during pregnancy and all months of lactation

1.52 grams needed in first 6 month of life

1.2 for next 6 months (up to a year)

17

how much body weight does proteins make up?

20%

18

proteins are second to what in the body's physical composition?

water

19

what are proteins the primary component of?

muscles
hair
nails
skin
eyes
internal organs (especially heart and brain)

20

what is protein composed of?

carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and NITROGEN (fats and carbs do not have nitrogen)

21

where are proteins synthesized?

synthesized at site of which they are used

22

how many amino acids are proteins comprised of?

25

23

how many essential amino acids are there?

9

24

how many nonessential amino acids are there?

6

25

how many conditionally essential amino acid are there?

10

26

what are complete proteins?

contain all essential amino acids

27

are amino acids neurotransmitters?

yes

28

where are compete proteins found?

animal foods

29

what are incomplete proteins?

do not contain all 9 essential amino acids

30

where are incomplete proteins found?

plants, vegetables, grains, seeds and nuts (must consume in combination)

31

what are functions of proteins?

growth and maintenance of muscles, ligaments, organs,glands, hair, nails, skin, eyes, internal organs
regulate body water balance, fluid and salt balance
immunity depends on protein to manufacture body's antibodies
used as energy if carb and fat sources are low
create enzymes (catalyze and regulate all functions in body)
hemoglobin (red blood cell which carries oxygen)
creates hormones
acts as buffer for acid-alkaline balance by eliminating excess hydrogen ions in body

32

What is pancreatic enzyme that converts polypeptides into Dipeptides and tripeptides ?

Trypsin

33

Where are proteins first broken down and by what?

Stomach by hydrochloric acid, pepsin and protease

34

What reduces the polypeptides to single amino acids?

Amino peptidases (including dipeptidases)

35

Where are the individual amino acids absorbed?

Into bloodstream through intestinal wall

36

What carries the amino acids to the liver?

Portal vein circulation

37

What is main site and regulator of amino acid metabolism?

Liver

38

______ % of amino acids are recycled from old tissue proteins?

60-70%

39

What are recycled amino acids called?

Endogenous

40

What are new amino acids called?

Exogenous

41

What controls and guides protein formation ?

DNA with assistance of RNA through duplication and replication process

42

What are 3/4 of amino acids used for?

To form body proteins such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies and tissue proteins like muscle

43

How long do red blood cells and skin last for?

1 month

44

How often are cells that line intestinal tract replaced?

Almost twice weekly

45

How many calories Do proteins and carbs supply per day?

4 calories

46

What is hemoglobin?

Iron-bearing protein that is key component of the red blood cell

47

What are primary protein hormones?

Insulin and thyroid hormone

48

What are foreign proteins called?

Antigens

49

What is process called when our body misguidedly makes antibodies to our own tissue ?

Autoimmunity

50

What are the 3 essential amino acids most commonly deficient because they are found in lower levels of vegetable proteins?

Lysine, methionine and tryptophan

51

Of muscle protein is not replaced what happens?

We experience net protein loss

52

What is biological value measurement ?

Looks at amount of nitrogen released from protein and absorbed in body

53

What is decreased stomach acid secretion associated with?

Chronic stress, poor diet with excess food intake, poor food combining and aging

54

In what nitrogen balance state can growth occur?

Positive

55

What happens to excess protein?

Can be turned into fat and stored in body as potential fuel or as glycogen in liver

56

What macro nutrients will be used first for energy?

Carbs, fats, the burn dietary fat and then will break down tissue proteins (which destroys body protein)

57

What are examples of foreign proteins?

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, pollens or protein from a food

58

What do proteins in plasma do?

Help maintain blood volume ?