Flashcards in Proteins Deck (58):
What is a cyclic compound?
A compound that contains a ring structure
What type of protein gets absorbed more readily than others?
What do amino acids do?
Establish communication between individual cells and entire organ systems
May be equally or more important than proteins when it comes to nourishment
Essential amino acids
Nonessential amino acids
What is time frame for all amino acids to be be consumed
1 -2 day period
What happens if an amino acid is deficient in our diet?
Body will continue to make proteins
But body will have to break down muscle protein to obtain deficient amino acid
Will muscle proteins be replaced after body breaks it down to get supply of deficient amino acid?
Yes, If over s period of 1-2 days we consume all necessary amino acids by eating a balanced and and compete selection of protein containing foods
What is process called when something is built up?
Process when something is broken down
With increase in protein intake will body have a positive or negative nitrogen balance?
How much protein does average adult synthesize daily?
What happens to excess protein?
Can be turned into fat and stored in body as potential fuel or glycogen in liver
What does protein inside cells do?
Help keep correct amount of water in cells
Recommended dietary allowance of proteins
0.8 gram per kilogram of ideal body weight for individuals 19 and older
Increases by 25 grams during pregnancy and all months of lactation
1.52 grams needed in first 6 month of life
1.2 for next 6 months (up to a year)
how much body weight does proteins make up?
proteins are second to what in the body's physical composition?
what are proteins the primary component of?
internal organs (especially heart and brain)
what is protein composed of?
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and NITROGEN (fats and carbs do not have nitrogen)
where are proteins synthesized?
synthesized at site of which they are used
how many amino acids are proteins comprised of?
how many essential amino acids are there?
how many nonessential amino acids are there?
how many conditionally essential amino acid are there?
what are complete proteins?
contain all essential amino acids
are amino acids neurotransmitters?
where are compete proteins found?
what are incomplete proteins?
do not contain all 9 essential amino acids
where are incomplete proteins found?
plants, vegetables, grains, seeds and nuts (must consume in combination)
what are functions of proteins?
growth and maintenance of muscles, ligaments, organs,glands, hair, nails, skin, eyes, internal organs
regulate body water balance, fluid and salt balance
immunity depends on protein to manufacture body's antibodies
used as energy if carb and fat sources are low
create enzymes (catalyze and regulate all functions in body)
hemoglobin (red blood cell which carries oxygen)
acts as buffer for acid-alkaline balance by eliminating excess hydrogen ions in body
What is pancreatic enzyme that converts polypeptides into Dipeptides and tripeptides ?
Where are proteins first broken down and by what?
Stomach by hydrochloric acid, pepsin and protease
What reduces the polypeptides to single amino acids?
Amino peptidases (including dipeptidases)
Where are the individual amino acids absorbed?
Into bloodstream through intestinal wall
What carries the amino acids to the liver?
Portal vein circulation
What is main site and regulator of amino acid metabolism?
______ % of amino acids are recycled from old tissue proteins?
What are recycled amino acids called?
What are new amino acids called?
What controls and guides protein formation ?
DNA with assistance of RNA through duplication and replication process
What are 3/4 of amino acids used for?
To form body proteins such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies and tissue proteins like muscle
How long do red blood cells and skin last for?
How often are cells that line intestinal tract replaced?
Almost twice weekly
How many calories Do proteins and carbs supply per day?
What is hemoglobin?
Iron-bearing protein that is key component of the red blood cell
What are primary protein hormones?
Insulin and thyroid hormone
What are foreign proteins called?
What is process called when our body misguidedly makes antibodies to our own tissue ?
What are the 3 essential amino acids most commonly deficient because they are found in lower levels of vegetable proteins?
Lysine, methionine and tryptophan
Of muscle protein is not replaced what happens?
We experience net protein loss
What is biological value measurement ?
Looks at amount of nitrogen released from protein and absorbed in body
What is decreased stomach acid secretion associated with?
Chronic stress, poor diet with excess food intake, poor food combining and aging
In what nitrogen balance state can growth occur?
What happens to excess protein?
Can be turned into fat and stored in body as potential fuel or as glycogen in liver
What macro nutrients will be used first for energy?
Carbs, fats, the burn dietary fat and then will break down tissue proteins (which destroys body protein)
What are examples of foreign proteins?
Bacteria, viruses, fungi, pollens or protein from a food