PSL301: Cardio 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSL301: Cardio 5 Deck (38):
1

Describe pulmonary circulation

pulmonary trunk -> 2 pulmonary arteries -> lungs -> 4 pulmonary veins -> left atrium

2

Aorta branches to...

Ascending arteries
Abdominal aorta

3

3 subclasses of arteries

1. Elastic artery
2. Muscular artery
3. Arteriole

4

Elastic artery

Branched from aorta
Elastic fibres in vessels to deal with high pressure

5

Muscular arteries

Distribute blood to various parts of the body

6

3 layers of the blood vessel

1. Tunica externa
2. Tunica media
3. Tunica intima

7

Tunica externa

- Collagen; fibrous connective tissue
- Holds vessel together

8

Tunica media

- Smooth muscle
- Elastic tissue
- Creates / stores pressures
- Regulate vasodiltion / constriction (SNS)

9

Tunica intima

- Endothelial cell layer
- Supported by loose connective tissue

10

Difference between arteries & veins

Arteries:
- Small lumen
- Thick tunica media
- Have elastic tissue (outside tunica media muscles)

Veins
- Wide lumen
- Valves
- No elastic tissue

11

Vascular tone

degree of constriction experienced by a blood vessel relative to its maximally dilated state

12

Arteries have ___ vascular tone, veins have __.

High
Low

13

Pressure in left ventricle ranges from...

120/5

14

Pressure in aorta ranges from...

120/80

15

Lowest pressure in arterioles

40 mmHg

16

Capillaries cause pressure to fall from __ to __

40 -> 20

17

Venules & veins cause pressure to fall from __ to __

20 -> 0

18

Arteries have the most (what component), but it has a little bit of everything.

Smooth muscle
(everything = endothelium, elastic tissue, fibrous tissue)

19

Every blood vessel has (what component)...?

Endothelium

20

Arterioles have the most (what component)...?

Smooth muscle

21

Capillaries have the most (what component)...?

endothelium (only thing it has)

22

Venules have the most (what component)...?

Fibrous tissue

23

Veins have the most (what component)...?

About the same elastic tissue / smooth muscle / fibrous tissue

24

Components that make up blood vessels

1. endothelium
2. elastic tissue
3. smooth muscle
4. fibrous tissue

25

__% of the body's blood is on the venous side

70

26

___ regulates flow into capillary beds

Metarterioles

27

Why must another vessel regulate flow in capillaries?

Capillaries only have an endothelial layer, so it cannot regulate vasodilation / constriction

28

How do metarterioles regulate blood flow in capillaries?

with precapillary sphincters

29

What happens when precapillary sphincters are shut?

Blood goes straight from arterioles -> venules through arteriovenous shunt

30

What cell always uses the arteriovenous shunt?

WBC (too big to go through capillaries)

31

Example when blood flow through capillaries is bypassed?

When you exercise, blood to gut capillaries is stopped

32

How much water is in intracellular components?

27L - 30L

33

How much water is in extracellular components

14 - 16.5L

34

Fluid can be lost through...

- Kidneys
- Lungs
- Sweat
- Feces

35

Blood pressure is __ at arteriole end, __ at venous end

30 mmHg
15 mmHg

36

Osmotic pressure is...

21 mmHg

37

At the arteriole end, __ happens because of net pressure outwards

Filtration
Hydrostatic pressure > osmotic pressure

38

At venule end, __ happens because of net pressure inwards

Absorption
Osmotic pressure > hydrostatic pressure