PSL301: Cardio 9 Flashcards Preview

PSL301 > PSL301: Cardio 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in PSL301: Cardio 9 Deck (43):
1

Extrinsic factors that cause changes in BP

- Age
- Sex
- weight
- race
- mood
- posture
- socioeconomic status
- physical activity

2

What counts as hypotension?

systolic BP below 100 mmHg

3

What counts as hypertension?

140/90 or higher
Must be constantly this high

4

Transient elevations in BP are __. Caused by...

Normal
fever, physical activity, emotions

5

Chronic elevations in BP are __. May cause...

Risky
heart failure, vascular disease, renal failure, stroke

6

3 types of hypotension

1. Orthostatic
2. Chronic
3. Acute

7

Orthostatic hypotension

"head rush"
temporary low BP due to standing up

8

Chronic hypotension

- Poor nutrition
- Warning for Addison's disease

9

Addison's disease

Less aldosterone production

10

Acute hypotension

Circulatory shock

11

Acute hypotension is a threat to...

patients undergoing surgery
intensive chair

12

Relationship between blood pressure and risk for CVD

Positive correlation

13

Hypertension stagaes

1. Normal
2. Prehypertentative
3. Stage 1 hypertension
4. Stage 2 hypertension

14

What happens to the baroreflex during hypertension?

Baroreceptors adapt to high BP, and will not tell body to lower BP

15

Consequences of hypertension

1. Damage to blood vessels
2. Increase cardiac load
3. Contribute to atherosclerosis
4. Pressure imbalances

16

2 types of hypertension

1. Essential
2. Secondary

17

Essential hypertension is caused by...

unknown

18

Frequency of essential vs. secondary hypertension

90%
10%

19

Secondary hypertension is caused by...

other diseases that affect blood flow

20

Secondary hypertension

- Damage to tissues
- Damage to sympathetic nervous system

21

Consequences of hypertension

- Heart muscle hypertropies to keep CO constant with increased R
- Pulmonary edema
- Congestive heart failure
- Risk for atherosclerosis

22

Treatment for hypertension

- Ca channel blockers
- Diuretics
- Beta blockers
- ACE inhibitors

23

Consequences of hypertension

- Edema
- Hypertrophy
- Heart failure

24

Causes of heart failure

- heart disease
- hypertension
- electrolyte imbalance

25

Which plant can increase contractilty of heart muscles?

Digitalis

26

What is heart failure?

CO is inadequate

27

Treatment for heart failure (and why)

- Digitalis (increase contractility)
- Diuretics (less vol. to pump)
- Nitroglycerin (less resistance)

28

Diuretics have what affect on blood volume?

Lowers it

29

Nitroglycerin is a...

vasodilator

30

Goal of heart failure treatment

- heart work more efficiently
- reduce stress on heart

31

Circulatory shock

Too little blood in vessels; organs can't get enough nutrients and O2

32

Different types of shock

1. Hypovolemic shock
2. Vascular shock
3. Cardiogenic shock

33

Define: hypovolemic shock

Rapid, severe blood loss
Lower blood volume

34

Types of vascular shock

1. Anaphylaxis
2. Septicemia

35

Define: anaphylactic shock

Allergic / immune reactions
Release of histamine

36

Define: septic shock

Caused by infection of bacteria
NO dilate blood vessels

37

Define: cardiogenic shock

Infarcted heart (part of heart does not get O)
Abnotmal CO

38

Overall symptoms of shock

Lower CO
Low BP ( tissues build up metabolic waste & lactic acid
This will positive feedback until death

39

Treatment for shock

Give O2, fluids, NE, remove bacteria

40

Symptoms for exercise is very similar to ___

shock

41

CO during exercise

25L/min

42

Where does most of the blood flow during exercise?

Skeletal muscles

43

Where does most of the blood flow to during rest?

Digestive system