Psy Test 1 Flashcards Preview

CLP1001 Test #1 > Psy Test 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psy Test 1 Deck (122):
1

Definition of psychology

The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings).

2

Gestalt

German. People seek out patterns – “whole is more than the sum of its parts”.

3

Wilhelm Wundt

“father of psychology” Used technique of objective introspection: examine one’s thoughts, and Structuralism: structure of the mind.

4

Functionalism

Proposed by William James, considered father of U.S. psychology – 1890’s. How the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play aka “function” in the real world.

5

Behaviorism

Proposed by John Watson. Focus only on the study of observable behavior Psychology,

6

Name the 3 Research Designs Studies

Descriptive, Correlational, and Experiment.

7

Descriptive Studies:

Includes case studies, Naturalistic Observation, and Survey.

8

Correlation Coefficient

A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other.

9

Positive correlation:

Both charges are the same: High scores on X are associated with high amounts of studying, or low scores on X are associated with low amounts of studying.

10

Negative Correlation:

Charges are opposite: High scores on X are associated with low procrastination, or low scores on X are associated with high amounts of procrastination.

11

Experiment

an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors

12

Independent Variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated, the variable whose effect is being studied

13

Dependent Variable

the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. In other words it DEPENDS on the independent variable to change.

14

experimental condition

the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

15

Control Condition

the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment, it may be a placebo which serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

16

Random Sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. It is then randomly split into which groups they will go on.

17

Scientific method

Ask a Question, Do Background Research, Construct a Hypothesis, Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment, Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion, Communicate Your Results.

18

Neurons

nerve cells in the nervous system that receive & send messages

19

Parts of neuron

Soma: the cell body. Dendrites: the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body. Axon: the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands.

20

Types of neurons

Interneurons(intervene), Motor Neurons, and Sensory Neurons.

21

Ions

Charged particles. If inside neuron it is negatively charged. If outside neuron it is positively charged.

22

Action potential

The release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon which allows positive sodium ions to enter the cell.

23

Resting potential

the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse (negatively charged).

24

Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse

25

Synapse

Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron which has a synaptic gap.

26

Reuptake

The reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic neuron after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.

27

Agonists vs Antagonists

Ag mimics neurotransmitter and fully activates the neuronal receptor that it attaches to. Antag attaches to a receptor but does not activate it, it blocks neurotransmitter.

28

Glial cells

Grey fatty cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons, and produce myelin to coat axons.

29

Myelin

fatty substances produced by glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse.

30

Nervous System

the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system which consists of all the nerve cells and systems.

31

Central Nervous System (CNS)

the brain and spinal cord

32

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body including the Somatic and Autonomic system which contains the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems,

33

Somatic Nervous System

(controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles & sensory pathway)

34

Autonomic Nervous System

controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart).

35

Sympathetic Nervous System

division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.

36

Parasympathetic Nervous System

division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.

37

Medulla (b)

Controls heartbeat and breathing/keeps you alive. (b)

38

Pons (b)

Awareness, alertness, plays a part in sleep, dreaming, and arousal (b)

39

Reticular Formation (b)

Consciousness (b)

40

Cerebellum (b)

Coordinates movement. (b)

41

Thalamus (b)

Interprets what you are sensing(except smell) (b)

42

Hypothalamus (b)

Lets you know when you are thistry. hungry. cold, etc. (b)

43

Amygdala (b)

Fear and aggression (b)

44

Hippocampus (b)

remembering where to go, how to drive. etc (b)

45

Corpus Callosum (b)

Sharing information between hemispheres (b)

46

Frontal lobe (b)

involves the ability to recognize future consequences from current actions. Includes the Motor Cortex, Broca's area, and the Prefrontal Cortex. (b)

47

Motor Cortex (b)

Tells your brain what you want to do, move, speak (b)

48

Broca's area (b)

Controls speech muscles (b)

49

Prefrontal Cortex (b)

Makes you make correct decisions (b)

50

Parietal Lobe (b)

involved in spatial understanding. Includes Somatosensory Cortex. (b)

51

Somato-sensory Cortex (b)

If you drop coffee on yourself it will make you feel it, also how much pressure to put on throttle. (b)

52

Occipital Lobe (b)

Include the visual cortex: the ability to see and process it (b)

53

Temporal Lobe (b)

Involved with listening. Includes the Auditory Cortex, and Wernicke’s Area (b)

54

Auditory Cortex (b)

Ability to hear and know what you're hearing. (b)

55

Wernicke’s Area (b)

Interpret auditory code, including language. (b)

56

Association Areas

areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information including seeing connections.

57

Corpus Callosum

large band of neural fibers which connects the two brain hemispheres and carries messages between the hemispheres.

58

Aphasia

impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding)

59

Limbic System

Play an important role in memory and emotion

60

Lateralization of Brain

Left side of the brain: seems to control language, writing, logical thought, analysis, and mathematical abilities, Right side of the brain: controls emotional expression, spatial perception, recognition of faces, patterns, melodies, and emotions.

61

Endocrine System

the body’s “slow” chemical communication system, secretes hormones.

62

The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings).

Definition of psychology

63

German. People seek out patterns – “whole is more than the sum of its parts”.

Gestalt

64

“father of psychology” Used technique of objective introspection: examine one’s thoughts, and Structuralism: structure of the mind.

Wilhelm Wundt

65

Proposed by William James, considered father of U.S. psychology – 1890’s. How the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play aka “function” in the real world.

Functionalism

66

Proposed by John Watson. Focus only on the study of observable behavior Psychology,

Behaviorism

67

Descriptive, Correlational, and Experiment.

Name the 3 Research Designs Studies

68

Includes case studies, Naturalistic Observation, and Survey.

Descriptive Studies:

69

A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other.

Correlation Coefficient

70

Both charges are the same: High scores on X are associated with high amounts of studying, or low scores on X are associated with low amounts of studying.

Positive correlation:

71

Charges are opposite: High scores on X are associated with low procrastination, or low scores on X are associated with high amounts of procrastination.

Negative Correlation:

72

an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors

Experiment

73

the experimental factor that is manipulated, the variable whose effect is being studied

Independent Variable

74

the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. In other words it DEPENDS on the independent variable to change.

Dependent Variable

75

the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

experimental condition

76

the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment, it may be a placebo which serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

Control Condition

77

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. It is then randomly split into which groups they will go on.

Random Sample

78

Ask a Question, Do Background Research, Construct a Hypothesis, Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment, Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion, Communicate Your Results.

Scientific method

79

nerve cells in the nervous system that receive & send messages

Neurons

80

Soma: the cell body. Dendrites: the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body. Axon: the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands.

Parts of neuron

81

Interneurons(intervene), Motor Neurons, and Sensory Neurons.

Types of neurons

82

Charged particles. If inside neuron it is negatively charged. If outside neuron it is positively charged.

Ions

83

The release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon which allows positive sodium ions to enter the cell.

Action potential

84

the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse (negatively charged).

Resting potential

85

Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse

Neurotransmitters

86

Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron which has a synaptic gap.

Synapse

87

The reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic neuron after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.

Reuptake

88

Ag mimics neurotransmitter and fully activates the neuronal receptor that it attaches to. Antag attaches to a receptor but does not activate it, it blocks neurotransmitter.

Agonists vs Antagonists

89

Grey fatty cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons, and produce myelin to coat axons.

Glial cells

90

fatty substances produced by glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse.

Myelin

91

the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system which consists of all the nerve cells and systems.

Nervous System

92

the brain and spinal cord

Central Nervous System (CNS)

93

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body including the Somatic and Autonomic system which contains the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems,

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

94

(controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles & sensory pathway)

Somatic Nervous System

95

controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart).

Autonomic Nervous System

96

division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.

Sympathetic Nervous System

97

division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.

Parasympathetic Nervous System

98

Controls heartbeat and breathing/keeps you alive. (b)

Medulla (b)

99

Awareness, alertness, plays a part in sleep, dreaming, and arousal (b)

Pons (b)

100

Consciousness (b)

Reticular Formation (b)

101

Coordinates movement. (b)

Cerebellum (b)

102

Interprets what you are sensing(except smell) (b)

Thalamus (b)

103

Lets you know when you are thistry. hungry. cold, etc. (b)

Hypothalamus (b)

104

Fear and aggression (b)

Amygdala (b)

105

remembering where to go, how to drive. etc (b)

Hippocampus (b)

106

Sharing information between hemispheres (b)

Corpus Callosum (b)

107

involves the ability to recognize future consequences from current actions. Includes the Motor Cortex, Broca's area, and the Prefrontal Cortex. (b)

Frontal lobe (b)

108

Tells your brain what you want to do, move, speak (b)

Motor Cortex (b)

109

Controls speech muscles (b)

Broca's area (b)

110

Makes you make correct decisions (b)

Prefrontal Cortex (b)

111

involved in spatial understanding. Includes Somatosensory Cortex. (b)

Parietal Lobe (b)

112

If you drop coffee on yourself it will make you feel it, also how much pressure to put on throttle. (b)

Somato-sensory Cortex (b)

113

Include the visual cortex: the ability to see and process it (b)

Occipital Lobe (b)

114

Involved with listening. Includes the Auditory Cortex, and Wernicke’s Area (b)

Temporal Lobe (b)

115

Ability to hear and know what you're hearing. (b)

Auditory Cortex (b)

116

Interpret auditory code, including language. (b)

Wernicke’s Area (b)

117

areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information including seeing connections.

Association Areas

118

large band of neural fibers which connects the two brain hemispheres and carries messages between the hemispheres.

Corpus Callosum

119

impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding)

Aphasia

120

Play an important role in memory and emotion

Limbic System

121

Left side of the brain: seems to control language, writing, logical thought, analysis, and mathematical abilities, Right side of the brain: controls emotional expression, spatial perception, recognition of faces, patterns, melodies, and emotions.

Lateralization of Brain

122

the body’s “slow” chemical communication system, secretes hormones.

Endocrine System