Flashcards in PSY101 - Chapter 8: Memory Deck (31):
Information Processing Model
1. Encoding - the processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extracting meaning.
2. Storage - the retention of encoded information over time.
3. Retrieval - the process of getting information out of memory storage.
Atikinson and Shiffrin's Classic Model
External events -(sensory input)-> Sensory memory -(attention to important or novel information/encoding)-> Working/short-term memory -(Encoding)-><-(retrieving)-
Long-term memory storage.
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
--Sperling's nine-letter immediate recall experiment.
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare (declarative memory).
--Frontal lobe and hippocampus
Retention independent of conscious recollection (non declarative memory).
--Cerebellum and basal ganglia
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
--space - place on a page where you saw something.
--time - knowing where you've left something over the course of the day based on what you were doing when you last had it.
--frequency - how many times you see a friend during a period of time.
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3/4 seconds.
Organizing information into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.
Encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.
Encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention.
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Long-term Potentiation (LTP)
An increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
An inability to form new memories.
An Inability to retrive information from one's past.
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories (not typically believed anymore).
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.