PSY101 - Chapter 8: Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSY101 - Chapter 8: Memory Deck (31):
1

Information Processing Model

1. Encoding - the processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extracting meaning.
2. Storage - the retention of encoded information over time.
3. Retrieval - the process of getting information out of memory storage.

2

Atikinson and Shiffrin's Classic Model

External events -(sensory input)-> Sensory memory -(attention to important or novel information/encoding)-> Working/short-term memory -(Encoding)-><-(retrieving)-
Long-term memory storage.

3

Sensory Memory

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
--Sperling's nine-letter immediate recall experiment.

4

Short-term Memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.

5

Long-term Memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

6

Working Memory

A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

7

Explicit Memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare (declarative memory).
--Frontal lobe and hippocampus

8

Implicit Memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection (non declarative memory).
--Cerebellum and basal ganglia

9

Effortful Processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

10

Automatic Processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
--space - place on a page where you saw something.
--time - knowing where you've left something over the course of the day based on what you were doing when you last had it.
--frequency - how many times you see a friend during a period of time.

11

Iconic Memory

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

12

Echoic Memory

A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3/4 seconds.

13

Chunking

Organizing information into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

14

Mnemonics

Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

15

Spacing Effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

16

Testing Effect

Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply reading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

17

Shallow Processing

Encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.

18

Deep Processing

Encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention.

19

Flashbulb Memory

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

20

Long-term Potentiation (LTP)

An increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
--Gary Lynch

21

Priming

The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.

22

Mood-congruent Memory

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.

23

Serial-position Effect

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

24

Anterograde Amnesia

An inability to form new memories.

25

Retrograde Amnesia

An Inability to retrive information from one's past.

26

Proactive Interference

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

27

Retroactive Interference

The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.

28

Repression

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories (not typically believed anymore).

29

Misinformation Effect

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.

30

Source Amnesia

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.

31

Déjà vu

That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before."Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.