PSY101 L06 Key Terms Ch 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSY101 L06 Key Terms Ch 7 Deck (21):
1

The process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows.

Reinforcement/reinforcers

2

A basic kind of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organism's responses.

Conditioning

3

The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.

Operant conditioning

4

Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced.

Extrinsic reinforcers

5

Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced.

Intrinsic reinforcers

6

The classical-conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditional stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned response (CR)

7

After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning. In classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response; in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus occurs (or is suppressed) in the presence of other, similar stimuli.

Stimulus generalization (in classical conditioning)

8

The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response. In classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus; in operant condition, it occurs when a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer.

Extinction (in operant conditioning)

9

A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.

Learning

10

Antecedents (events preceding behavior), behaviors, and consequences.

Behavioral "ABCs"

11

The classical-conditioning term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning.

Unconditioned stimulus (US)

12

The process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows.

Punishment/punishers

13

The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli. In classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus fails to evoke the conditioned response; in operant condition, it occurs when an organism learns to make a response in the presence of other, similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimension.

Stimulus discrimination (in classical conditioning)

14

The classical-conditioning term from a reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning.

Unconditioned response (UR)

15

An operant-conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced.

Shaping

16

A cage equipped with a device that delivers food into a dish when an animal makes a desired response.

Skinner box

17

The classical-conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditional stimulus; it occurs after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned response (CR)

18

The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response. In classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus; in operant condition, it occurs when a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer.

Extinction (in classical conditioning)

19

An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior.

Behaviorism

20

After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning. In classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response; in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus occurs (or is suppressed) in the presence of other, similar stimuli.

Stimulus generalization (in operant conditioning)

21

Theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs.

Social-cognitive theories