Flashcards in PSYC4022 Testing and Assessment Week Five Personality Deck (87):
Describe One's Definition of Personality
"the spectrum of enduring dispositions that distinguish people from one another in terms of basic tendencies to think, feel, and act." Ones, 2009
"Any distinguishable, relatively enduring way in which one individual varies from another" (Guildford, 1959, pg. 6)
the transitory exhibition of some personality trait; a relatively temporary predisposition.
A constellation of traits that is similar in pattern to one identified category of personality within a taxonomy of personalities
the measurement and evaluation of psychological traits, states, values, interests, attitudes, worldview, acculturation, sense of humour, cognitive and behavioural styles, and/ or related individual characteristics.
A narrative description of the extent to which a person has demonstrated certain personality traits, states or types. (The MMPI commonly reveals a profile).
Content-Oriented Approach to Test Development
The use of Logic and Reason in the Development of Tests
Is used to identify the minimum number of variables or factors that account for inter-correlations in observed phenomena.
A tendency to respond in a given way.
The attempt to manipulate others' impressions through "the selective exposure of some information… coupled with suppression of [other]information" (Braginsky et al.,1969, p.51)
Using yourself as the norm against which to measure something , e.g. your present performance against your past performance rather than the performance of others
John Holland believed there were 6 personality types. What are they?
What is the name of the test John Holland developed?
Self Directed Search (SDS) test
What is John Holland's test designed to do?
Identify Vocational Interests
Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman developed a two category personality typology. What were the two personality types described?
Type A and Type B
Endler and Magnusson (1976) believed there were 5 major personality theories. What are they?
What are the 5 major debates in personality theory?
1. Universality Vs Uniqueness
2. Nature Vs Nurture
3. State Vs Trait
4. Free Will Vs Determinism
5. Conscious Vs Unconscious
Hippocrates (440BCE) believed there were 4 body "humors" Physical differences related to personality types. What are they?
1. Blood - Sanguine - Cheerful
2. Black Bile - Melancholic - Gloomy
3. Yellow Bile - Choleric - Angry or Violent
4. Phlegm - Phlegmatic - Passive
What are 4 ways we can evaluate Personality theories?
1. Avoid arguments ad-hominem
2. Look at the explanatory power of the theory
4. No one theory can explain all facets of personality (although some claim to)
What are 5 aspects of refutability?
*How verifyable/ testable is it?
*Are concepts clearly defined?
*Falsifiability; can it be proved to be correct? (Popper)
Why think in terms of Personality? (5 Reasons)
1. Framework for understanding `self'
2. Way of related to others
3. Way perceptions are organised
4. Identification of drives, motivations
5. Recurrent patterns and enduring traits
What is an example of an atheoretical (or inductive) personality test?
What is an example of a theory saturated (or deductive) personality test?
Blacky Pictured Test (Blum, 1950)
What is an example of an Empircal Personality Test (i.e. Using a Criterion Group)?
The use of logic and reason in test development is sometimes referred to as the...
content or content-oriented approach to test development
Allport and Odbert (1936) distilled 18,000 personality traits into how many?
What is a validity Scale?
A subscale of a test designed to assist in judgements regarding how honestly the testtaker responded and whether responses were products of response style, carelessness, deception or misunderstanding
What are the features of a nomothetic approach to assessment?
3. "What" and label
4. Constructs/ Diagnoses
5. Deviation from the group mean
6. E.g. Factor Analytic
What are the features of an idiographic approach to assessment?
2. Result of a unique history (biological & contextual)
3. "how" and "Why" and process
5. Commonalities and relatedness
6. E.g. Biographical
There are 8 aspects of a self-report approach to assessment. What are they?
1. Item response specified
2. Typically paper and pencil
4. Scales purport specific attributes
5. Thresholds identified
6. Content generally informs respondent
7. Reflect manifest aspects of self
8. Scoring is prescribed
There are 7 aspects of a projective approach to assessment. What are they?
1. Generated by the respondent
2. Paper, Verbal, Other
3. Qualitative, Quantitative
4. Generally a Global Composite of Personality
5. Instrument generally disguises are of appraisal/ interpretation
6. Reveal covert, latent, unconscious aspects of self
7. Scoring is systematised and open to interpretation
What is the lower age limit for the MMPI-2?
How many true/false items are included in the MMPI-2?
How many clinical scales, validity scales and supplemental scales are included in the MMPI-2?
10 clinical scales, 11 validity scales and 12 supplemental scales
What T-score represents an elevation on the MMPI-2?
There are 11 Validity Scales on the MMPI-2. What are they?
1. ? - Cannot Say, (9, 30)
2. VRIN - Variance Response Inconsistency (67)
3. TRIN - True Response Inconsistency (23)
4. L - Lie (DUPE,15)
5. K - Correction (SMH, 30)
6. S - Superlative (s, 50)
7. FBS - Symptom Validity (F, 43)
8. F - Infequency (STOPS PREP, 60, 10)
9. Fb - Back Infrequency (BPD, SHiP, 40)
10. Fp - Infrequency-Psychopathology (27, 20 OP)
11. F-K - Dissimulation Index (+9, +20, -2)
There are 2 additional scales to the supplemental scales of the MMPI-2. What are they?
Internalising Ratio (T-scores) (4 + 6 + 9 = EX S, 2 + 7 + 0 = IN)
Goldberg Index (Psychoticism and Neuroticism)
What are the 10 clinical scales of the MMPI-2. What are their codes?
1. HS - Hypochondriasis
2. D - Depression
3. Hy - Hysteria
4. Pd - Psychopathic Deviate
5. Mf - Masculine/Feminine (not on MMPI-2-RF)
6. Pa - Paranoia
7. Pt - Pscycho-asthenia (won't be in exam)
8. Sc - Schizophrenia
9. Ma - Mania
10. Si - Socially Isolated
Name the 12 clinical scales of the MMPI-2 and their codes
Es - Ego Strength Scale
OH - Over-controlled Hostility Scale
MAC - MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale
MAC-R - MacAndrews Alcoholism Scale Revised
Do - Dominance Scale
APS - Addictions Potential Scale
AAS - Addictions Acknowledgement Scale
SOD - Social Discomfort Scale
A - Anxiety Scale
R - Repression Scale
TPA - Type A Scale
MDS - Marital Distress Scale
Who designed the 16PF?
What was the 16PF designed for?
16PF is designed to be used as a broad measure of personality and to predict a wide range of life behaviours for adults ages 16 and older.
What is the lower threshold age limit for the 16PF?
16 years old
The 16PF has recently been narrowed down to how many key factors?
Is the 16PF for use with normal or clinical populations?
Is the test-retest for the 16PF any good?
Yes, very good for global factors
What is the range of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the 16F?
How big was the norm sample for the 16PF?
How is the 16PF administered and scored?
Either by hand or on a computer
Is the 16PF designed to distinguish one group from another?
What does a ? response mean on the 16PF?
Neither response offered is appropriate for the respondent.
Does the 16PF have good predictive validity?
True or False: The 16PF assesses social skills but not motivation
Since when has the TAT been in use?
Are there different versions of the TAT for different ages?
How many black and white drawn pictures are included in the TAT?
True or False, interpretation of the TAT does not rely heavily on clinical skills and experience.
False. Interpretation of the TAT does rely heavily on the skills and experience of the clinician.
How long as the Rorschach been in clinical use?
Since the 1920s
How long has the Exner system of analysis been in use in interpreting the Rorschach?
Since the 1970s
In what year was the Rorschach Research Council founded by Exner?
In what year did Exner die leaving no clear instructions to allow evolution of the CS with new research for the Rorschach
Members of the RCC integrated their work and developed what system for interpretation of the Rorschach?
Performance assessment system (R-PAS)
For what test is this the administration instruction: For each picture make up a story...
Tell what has led up to the event in the picture...
Describe what is happening in the moment...
What the characters are thinking and feeling...
Talk about the outcome...
Speak thoughts as they come to your mind...
About 5 minutes for each picture
For what test is this the administration instruction: Sit side by side
See card as respondent holds it
Observe card orientation
Observe manual interaction with card surface
Reduce non verbal cues
Sensitive to cultural considerations as side by side is more intimate
Cards placed in order, face down
Write in your lap
Avoid adding information that may influence reports
3 things that they see (prompt at 1, pull at 4)
For which test is this the administration instruction: “This assessment involves a series of inkblot designs on cards that I will
show you. What I am asking you to do is to say what they look like to you. Please give two or maybe three responses to each card. What might this be?”
What are the 4 most common types of malingering
2. Injury/ Cognitive Impairment
3. Injury/ Physical Impairment
PAI is an acronym for what?
Personality Assessment Inventory
The Personality Assessment Inventory is extremely sensitive at detecting what?
The True/False format of the MMPI-2 disallows what?
For respondents to sit on the fence.
The fact that respondents cannot sit on the fence in answering MMPI-2 questions eliminates what problem?
Transparency of DSM Criteria
The Blackey Test has how many cards?
The TAT has how many cards?
What is pure malingering?
When you make up the whole disorder
What is exeggerating (in the realm of malingering)?
Exaggerating real symptoms
What is false imputation (in the realm of malingering)?
You remember what the disease feels like and so you're going to pretend you have the disease now.
What is the F validity Scale of the MMPI called?
The Infreqency scale.
What 2 things could high scores on the F (Infrequency) scale mean?
Random responding, problems with comprehension
What could moderate scores on the F (Infrequency) scale mean?
What do scores of >80T on the FBS (Symptom Validity) scale mean?
What do scores of >100T on the FBS (Symptom Validity) scale mean?
What does the FBS Scale on the MMPI stand for?
What does the FB scale on the MMPI stand for?
What do high scores on the FB scale mean?
Suicidal Ideation, hopelessness and relationship problems
What does the FP scale of the MMPI stand for?
What do scores of >100T on the Fp (Infrequency-Psychopathology) scale mean
Likely over-reporting of psychopathological symptoms
What does the F-K scale stand for?
What do High scores on the F-K (Dissimulation Index) mean?
High scores indicate over-reporting of psychopathology.