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Flashcards in Psych Deck (91):
1

Schizophrenia Positive symptoms

Disorganized thinking
Delusions
Hallucinations
Behavior

2

Disorganized thinking

formal thought disorder

Neologisms, Tangentiality, Derailment, Loosening of associations (word salad), Private word usage (neologism),
Perseveration, Nonsequitors, Poverty of speech (Alogia)

3

Delusions

Fixed false beliefs, not open to counter-example and not consistent with those of a culture or subculture or religion:

Paranoid/persecutory; Ideas of reference; External locus of control; Thought broadcasting; Thought insertion or withdrawal; Jealousy, Guilt; Grandiosity, Religious delusions; Somatic delusions

4

Hallucinations

Perceptual experience in the absence of stimuli, does not include hallucinations falling asleep (hypnogognic) or awakening, (hypnopompic) which are normal experiences.
Auditory; Visual; Olfactory; Somatic/tactile
Formication (infestation by bugs);Gustatory

5

Behavior

Bizarre dress, appearance; Catatonia; Motor abnormalities; Poor impulse control ;Anger, agitation; Stereotypies

6

Schizophrenia negative symptoms

diminished emotional expression
avolition

7

Diminished emotional expression

Decreased expression of emotion
Inappropriate affect
Blunting of affect/mood
Isolation or dissociation of affect
Incongruent affect

8

Avolition

Decreased self initiated activity asociality
Decreased drive
Loss of willed intentions
Anticipatory or consumatory anhedonia

9

Schizoaffective disorder

For cases with > 2 weeks of psychosis w/o a mood syndrome and have experienced mood episodes for at least half of the total duration of their psychotic disorder from its onset.

10

Kraepelin

distinguished manic depressive insanity from dementia praecox based on the course of illnes’

11

Alzheimer

discovery of a neuropathological anatomy for a mental illness.

(Nissl Stain)

12

Bipolar I disorder

has episodes of Mania

13

Bipolar II disorder

No mania, just hypomania

14

Cyclothymic disorder

> 50% of time too high or too low
dysthymic/hypomanic

15

Bipolar disorders virtually always includes

Depressive Disorders
Major depressive disorder
Dysthymic disorder
Depressive disorder NOS

16

Ego defenses (defense mechanism)

Unconscious and automatic mental processes everyone utilizes to prevent undesirable feelings (ex. Anger, depression, sadness) in response to both internal and external stressors and emotional conflict

= Coping mechanisms

17

Ego functioning

Methods of anxiety and affect tolerance (i.e. defense mechanisms)

Insight into mood, behavior, thoughts

Management of relationships

Sense of identity, history and place in the world

Reality testing

18

Splitting

less adaptive (immature)

difficult or impossible for a person to tolerate the idea that anything bad exists in someone - or oneself - that they view as good, they unconsciously keep good and bad separate

19

immature defenses

Acting out
Denial
Dissociation
Fixation
Passive aggression
Projection
Regression
Splitting

20

Repression

idea that the bad or unacceptable thought or feeling is kept unconscious

21

more adaptive defenses

Displacement
Identification
Isolation of affect
Rationalization
Reaction formation
Repression

22

most adaptive defenses

Altruism
Humor
Sublimation
Suppression

23

psychotherapy always occurs

within a set framework, by a trained professional, in order to improve the patient’s mental and emotional health

24

anatomical OCD

-Increased metabolism in the caudate nucleus in the basal ganglia is reversed by Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

25

anatomical BPD

-After Transference Focused Psychotherapy, brain function at level of amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex is changed in patients with negative affect.

26

psychodynamic psychotherapy purpose

attempting to help make unconscious processes conscious

27

psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques

clarification
confrontation
interpretation
free association
transference
countertransference

28

psychodynamic psychotherapy indications

-Depression
-Anxiety disorders
-Personality Disorders (especially Cluster B)
-No DSM5 Pathology (Problems with “work, love, or play”)

29

goals of supportive psychotherapy

-Reduce symptoms
-Maintain self-esteem
-Maximize adaptive capacities

30

techniques of supportive psychotherapy

-Empathy, conversational style (alliance building)
-Reassurance, normalizing (esteem building)
-Advice, teaching, anticipatory guidance, behavioral techniques (skills building and anxiety reduction)

31

indications of supportive psychotherapy

Almost all major mental illnesses including psychosis
Recent traumas or crises

32

CBT purpose

Therapist works with patient to identify automatic thoughts, learns adaptive responses

33

CBT indications

Panic Disorder: evaluation and testing of catastrophic thinking
GAD: realistic evaluation of danger
OCD: exposure and response prevention
Phobias: cognitive work, guided exposure, systematic desensitization, relaxation techniques
Depression, PTSD, substance abuse, sleep disorders

34

types of manualized psychotherapies

Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
Transference Focused Psychotherapy
Interpersonal Therapy

35

indication of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy

BPD, but also used with major mental illnesses in inpatient settings

36

DBT techniques/process

Skills to manage affect
Avoidance of self-destructive behavior
Teaching skills for more effective interpersonal interactions
Treatment contracts
Creation of a validating environment (acceptance by therapist and group)
Homework assignments

37

types of stage theories

psychodynamic
cognitive

38

Psychodynamic theory

Behavior is a surface characteristic that represents symbolically the deep inner workings of the mind – the unconscious

39

Freud's theory

Believed that people move through psychosexual stages (biological urges) for the adult personality to be formed

40

Erikson's theory

Believed people develop in psychosocial stages throughout life

41

difference in Freud vs. Erikson

Erikson- involved social and environmental factors, continued after puberty

42

Cognitive theory

Stress conscious thoughts and how the brain processes information
• Children actively construct their own cognitive worlds

43

AAO of Cognitive theory

assimilation
accommodation
organization

44

Piaget's

stages of cognitive development

sensorimotor
pre-operational
concrete operations
formal operations

45

Kohlberg's

moral development

preconventional
conventional
postconventional

46

tasks of infancy

• Motor control
• Establishment of routines
– Day-Night, Sleep-Wake rhythms – Regulate crying
• Development of Emotions
• Attachment
– Attunement, object constancy
• Self-other differentiation – Consciousness

47

Ability to roll over

3 months

48

Sitting without support

7 months

49

Crawling

9-10 months

50

Walking

13 monoths

51

up and down stairs

18 months

52

Facial recognition

6 wks-2 months

53

laughing in response to games

7-9 months

54

social smiling

1-2 months

55

social referencing

using another person’s response to an ambiguous situation as a guide for one’s own response

56

temperament definition

Inborn patterns of responding to the environment

57

Chess and Thomas

easy children
difficult children
slow to warm-up childrem

58

goodness of fit

How well parents and the environment fit or adjust to the temperament of the child

59

inhibited children- anatomical differences

All inhibited subjects showed a significant activation of the amygdala

60

babies begin to recognize their parents and respond preferentially to them

2-3 months

61

selective attachments form and fear of strangers develop

6-8 months

62

attachment types

• Securely Attached
• Insecurely Attached – Resistant/Ambivalent – Avoidant
• Disorganized/Disoriented

63

tasks of the toddler years

autonomy and independence
improved motor control
language
self regulation
cooperative and pretend play
empathy and standards
gender identity

64

– Brain reaches 4/5 of eventual size
– Daytime bladder control and bowel control

age 2-3

65

– Run easily
– Throw with accuracy – Running jumps

age 5

66

– Pour milk
– Button clothes
– Begin to attend to their own toileting

age 3

67

– Cut with scissors – Copy letters

age 4

68

telegraphic sentences

18 months

69

full sentences

age 3

70

self recognition

18-20 months

71

self-conscious (moral) emotions

– Pride, guilt, shame, embarrassment
– Use of personal pronouns – I, mine

72

effortful control

– Following rules
– Constraining emotional outbursts
– Planning long term strategy

73

parenting behavior

emotionality
control

74

parenting styles

authoritative
authoritarian
permissive
indifferent

75

boys issues

 Boys
 Autism
 ADHD
Conduct Disorder Language problems Learning disabilities OCD (early onset)  Tics/Tourette’s

76

girls issues

 Depression
 Shyness/social anxiety
Eating disorders Panic disorder

77

cause of autism

multiple etiologies
No single cause, no single cure
No biological marker
No evidence of parenting defects or emotionally induced autism

78

hallmarks of autism: social communication and social interaction

Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity,

Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors

Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships,

79

hallmarks of autism: restrictive, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behavior

Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech

Insistence on sameness,

Highly restricted, fixated interests

Hyper- or hypo-reactivity to sensory input

80

Shared major feature of Social communication disorder and ASD

A persistent difficulty with verbal and nonverbal communication that cannot be explained by low cognitive ability

81

associated symptoms of autism

 Intellectual Disability (most common coexisting disorder)  Epilepsy
Developmental Syndromes Metabolic Disorders (e.g., PKU)
ADHD
Obsessive/Compulsive Disorder
Depression&Anxiety
Other psychiatric disorders

82

key predictors of autism

at 18 months

Lack of pretend play
Lack of proto-declarative pointing  Lack of social interest
Lack of joint attention

83

weak central coherence theory

Tendency to focus on details rather than the meaningful whole

84

autism MRI

5-10% above normal- enlarged brain

may be related to decreased pruning

85

fMRI of autism

Hypoactivation of the fusiform gyrus during face perception tasks.

 Amygdala dysfunction

86

hallmarks of ID

*Impairments in Adaptive Functioning

 Effective coping with common life demands

 Ability to meet standards of independence

87

recognition of mild ID- when?

often indistinguishable from other children until school age

88

moderate ID- highest level of educational ability

Unlikely to progress beyond the 2nd grade academically

89

profound ID

Considerable impairments in sensorimotor functioning; very limited understanding of speech
 Dependent for all aspects of living

90

selective mutism

Consistent failure to speak in specific social situations (in which there is an expectation for speaking, e.g., at school) despite speaking in other situations

91

treatment for anxiety disorder

 Psychotherapy
--- Psychoeducation , Cognitive/Behavior therapy

 Medication