what is a neuron
a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system
What are the primary components of a neuron?
Cellbody, axon, dendrites
What are the different types of neurons? How do they differ in terms of their function
sensory, motor, interneurons
Myelin is an insulating layer, or sheath that forms around nerves
a junction between two nerve cells
nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism’s environment into internal electrical impulses
a nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.
the electrical potential of a neuron or other excitable cell relative to its surroundings when not stimulated or involved in the passage of an impulse.
the changes in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.
drug that increases the action of a neurotransmitter
drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter
cylindrical bundles of fibers (the axons of neurons), that emanate from the brain and spinal cord,
the part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord
the part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the bodys organs and muscles
somatic nervous system
a set of nerves that conveys information between voluntary muscles and the central ns
a set of nerves that prepares the body for action in challenging or threatening situations
parasympathetic nervous system
a set of nerves that help the body return to the normal resting state
the area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
a large structure in the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills
the outermost layer of the brain
areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the very center of the brain
a subcortical structure that relays and fliters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex
a group of forebrain structures including the hypothalumus, the hippocampus, and the amygdala. invloved in motivation, learning, memory, and emotion
the structure used for creating new memories and applying them to previos concepts
part of limbic system that contributes to emotions and emotional memories
band of nerve fibers that connect both sides of the brain
a region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
a region of the cerebral cortex whose function include processing information about touch
a region of the cerebral coretx responsible for hearing and language
region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgment
areas of the cerebral cortex that are composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex
neurons that are active when an animal performs a behavior, like picking up a pen, and used when another animal recognizes the behavior
study of enviormental influences that determine whether or not genes are expressed without altering the genetic structure
a device that records electrical activity in the brain
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow
what are the two main types of nervous systems and what is their difference?
central and peripheral