Psych Of Learning Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Psych Of Learning Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psych Of Learning Exam 2 Deck (37):

Classical conditioning:

NS + US = UR
Loud car + kiss = Smile
Loud car = smile

It's involuntary


John Watson and Little Albert

Doesn't matter where you start you can achieve success
First one to demonstrate that emotions can be learned
Fears can be learned
Albert associated rat with his fear of the loud sound
To all furry things



Reflexes: Movement of part of body in reaction to a stimulus
Knee jerk reflex



Tropisms: Movement or change in orientation of whole body in reaction to a stimulus
Clap and turn head to where noise came from



Random movement
Type of Tropism



Taxes: Nonrandom movement
Cockroaches scatter to dark when light turns on
Type of Tropism


Startle response

Full body jerk in response to stimulus


Eye blink and eye reflex conditioning

Eye blink conditioning in humans and nonhuman animals require involvement of the cerebellum in order to process the timing of the CS and US
Eye blink and eye reflex conditioning
1. Puff of air (unconditioned stimulus) -> eye blink (unconditioned response)
2. Tone (conditioned stimulus) + puff of air -> eye blink
3. Tone CS and puff of air US become associated
4. Tone CS -> eye blink CR


Startle response and fear conditioning

Startle response and fear conditioning
1. Electrical shock (US) -> startle response UR
2. Sound CS + electrical shock -> startle response UR
3. Association forms between sound CS and shock US
4. Sound CS -> startle response CR


Taxes and conditioned preferences

1. Hungry rat given food US -> approach behaviors UR (full body movement towards food for a reason so it's a taxes
2. Food US + Compartment cues CS to approach UR
3. Association formed between food US and compartment cues CS
4. Compartment cues CS to approach response CR


Conditioning in your own life

Alarm in the morning followed with a kiss on the cheek good bye from my boyfriend and I smile. Now I smile when I hear the alarm.


Frequency rule

The more times the CS is paired with the US, the stronger the response
Not always true!


Eye dilation
Classical conditioning

CS (bell) -> auditory vortex -> Amygdala
Darkness -> (US) visual cortex -> Amygdala
Response (eye dilation)
After several trials CS alone reactivates the Amygdala and Amygdala outputs a response



Emotions are classically conditioned
Emotions at their core are a physiological response that you interpret as a certain emotion based on the situation you are in
Fear vs excitement: forced to jump from plane vs want to skydive!


Love is a learned emotion

Love: learned emotion
Parent and child
Learned emotional reaction
During birthing process
You have a release of oxytocin (US) (chemical that acts on opioid receptors so it rduces pain, it also produces a physiological reaction that's interpreted as bonding (UR)
Baby (Cs)
Paired baby with oxytocin that gives bonding feeling
The baby also happens to be getting a dose of oxytocin through the cord (baby feels bonding to mom)
After birth: baby is held by mom this releases oxytocin too for both!
After enough pairings the mom will feel that bonding emotion just by looking at child which is interpreted as love! (CR)

Erotic love: woman meets guy
Guy (CS) guys plan is to pair himself with positive things (food, fun, and drinks (US) ) which makes you feel good (UR)
Guy makes you feel good (CR)
Guy + sex = oxytocin release which leads to feeling of bonding
Guy -> bonding (love)
Break up: see something that reminds you of the guy. Brain expects oxytocin to come
It doesn't come! So you get cravings, so do something stupid (go back with them)

Learned emotional reactions

Makes love real! Physiological basis based on neurological communication in the brain that you interpret as love


Overshadowing experiment:

Light is weaker so doesn't produce response
One stimulus overshadows other!
Light (CS) + tone (CS) + shock (US) -> startle (UR
Tone (CS) -> startle (CR)
Light (CS) -> no CR
Why? More intense/salient tone overshadowed less intense light
Did not allow light to gain predictive power


Blocking experiment

Two groups: normal vs blocking

Group 1: normal
Light (CS) + shock (US) -> startle (UR)
Light(CS) -> startle (CR)

Group 2: shock
Tone (CS) + shock (US) -> startle (UR)
Tone (CS) -> startle (CR)
Tone (CS) and light (CS) + shock (US) -> startle (UR)
Light (CS) -> no startle

Why? Conditioning to tone BLOCKED conductioning to the light
Light adds no new predictive info about shock

As long as old stimulus is around you're not going to associate with new stimulus

In threesomes you wouldn't fall inlove with new guy cause old guy is present


Preexposure experiment

Light (CS)
Light (CS) + shock (US) -> startle (UR)
Light (CS) -> no CR

Why? Habituation to light May occur, resulting in reduced salience


Timing of CS and US presentations

Simultaneous: same time
Trace: CS before us
Short delay: CS then us, end at same time
Long delay: CS way before Us, end at same time
Backward: us before CS


Association of S-S learning vs S-R

S-S: CS then us then response
S-R: CS and US then response



Robert Rescorla
Habituation is the decrease in reflexive behavior due to continued exposure to stimulus
Relearning is when you habituate to a stimulus faster the second time than you did the first
Stimulus generalization occurs when after you've habituated to one stimulus, you are able to habituate to a similar stimulus much faster than the original stimulus
Stimulus strength, the more intense a stimulus the harder and longer it is to habituate to
Seen in infant speech development, infant habituates to a sound and then is presented with similar sound to see if it dishabituates. If it dies it is developing speech
Recognition memory in animals, rat is presented with two objects in open field once rag habituates there is a delay period then the rat is put in en field with one if the old items and a new one if the rat spends more time with new item it is due to it recognizing and being habituated to old object
Kandels study with snails: habituation if gill withdrawal reflex. Lightly stimulate the siphon and snail withdrawals gill a lot the first time, however each time the siphons is stimulated the gill withdrawal lessens
Decrease in dopamine release onto motor neuron reduces gill withdrawal
Decrease in calcium ion entry into interneuron reduces amount if dopamine released


Rapid reacquisition

Rapid reacquisition is when there are CS and US pairing followed by the CS being presented alone, followed by extinction trials, that increases the magnitude if the CR when CS and US pairings begin again


Spontaneous recovery

Spontaneous recovery is when CS and US pairings are followed by extinction trials which increases the magnitude of the CR when CS is presented alone


Higher order conditioning

2nd order CS2 + CS1 = CR
CS2 is never paired with US

First order classical conditioning
CS + US = UR

Second order classical conditioning
1st order CS + US = UR
2nd order CS2+CS1=CR

Light (CS)+ Shock (US) -> startle (UR)
Light (CS) -> startle (CR)
Tone (CS2) + light (CS1) -> startle (CR)
Tone (CS2) -> startle (CR)
Make sure to clearly state that the CS 2 and US were never oaired but still they produced that fear


Contextual classical conditioning

Association is formed between your surroundings (context: what you see hear, feel, and smell) and a US that elicits a UR. So that when context is present elicits a CR
This room we are sitting in is a context situation
Combining all together into one thing
Retrieve information about room you don't just retrieve parts you retrieve an entire context
Most common but most complicated

Addiction and relapse
Contextual representation of bar (CS) + Nicotine (US) -> UR
Everytime your in that context that contextual representation is going to produce a conditioned response (craving)
You get craving because this context predicts use of nicotine
But nicotine isn't coming cause your trying to quit
Withdraw symptoms
If cravings are strong enough you cave in and now your associating context with nicotine all over again RELAPSE
Get better at rehab, but after you go back to same context, this will bring out the cravings again
Contextual conditioning is most common reason why addicts relapse
Extinction: learned other thing that competes with the original learning


Why does higher order conditioning occur?

Why dies this learning happen? It's all about the predictive value of the stimulus

Chain of information
Tone predicts light is coming and light produces shock which then produces startle response
Indirectly that tone (CS) is predicting shock(US), therefor gains ability to elicit CR
Tone (CS) predicts Light (CS) predicts Shock (US) -> startle (UR)
Tone (CS) -> startle (CR)
Biological prediction


Higher order conditioning in real life

At first no seeing tiger
Then sees tiger kiss friend (US) which produces fear (UR)
Now seeing tiger (CS1) elicits fear response (CR)
First hears leaves (CS2) then sees tiger (CS1) now he associates hearing leaves rustle with tiger and this elicits fear
This aided survival because in being afraid of rustling leaves he is predicting arrival of tiger and therefor running away without ever seeing tiger


Extinction as therapy

Extinction trials to try to reduce fear
Disrupts normal life is when it's a problem and you need to treat it

Development of phobias: neutral stimulus + aversive stimulus = fear reaction
Neutral stimulus = fear reaction

No opportunity fir extinction because of avoidance behaviors
Fear of spiders, have to interact with spider
Forced extinction: two methods
1. Systematic desensitization
Mental process, imagine it
Get closer and closer to spicer in imagination, calming down in Ethernet steps
2. Exposure therapy
Physical presence
Elevator...first see it, then ride it, then locked In it


Watson and advertising

Watson changed advertisements
Brought ideas of shaping behavior using principles of classical conditions
Pre Watson: Very Factual
Post: very sexual, sex sells
Sex sells cause of classical conditioning
Go shopping, do t remember commercial but now that chocolate inhibits an approach response (sex inhibits this response)
Beer (CS) + bikini girl (US) = arousal response (UR)
Beer (CS) = arousal response (CR)


Use of lesion studies to demonstrate functional anatomy

Damaging structure helps show where functionality occurs
Electrolytic lesion: permanent damage to neurons, older technique
New technique uses GABA-agonist: temporary inactivation, 4-5 hrs
Useful technique because it doesn't cause permanent damage
GABA: stops neuron from firing
Agonist: facilitates GABA
Antagonist: prohibits GABA processing
Electrical current damages these neurons, if subject can't process certain info it helps show the purpose of these neuron



center structure necessary for classical conditioning to occur
Amygdala appears to play a critical role in the extinction of conditioned responses as well
Next to hippocampus
Location is important.. They are communicating to eachother (direct connection)
5 nuclei on each side if brain
Lateral nucleus (input)
Basolateral nucleus (processing)
Central nucleus (output)
Brain areas that produce response

Classical conditioning: Both CS and US neurons fire then connection/synapse is made between the two of them in basolateral nucleus
If it's a really strong conditioned stimulus you only need this to happen once
If you just experience CS by itself you get output signal later

Higher order: Once connection is made in basolateral between CS and CS2 you don't need CS1 , becomes second order classical conditioning/ higher order conditioning


Function of connections

1. Sensory information about CS is sent to lateral nucleus then basolateral nucleus
2. Neurons I. The basil stereo nucleus process the CS information
3. If US is then xperienced, sensory information about the US is sent into the lateral nucleus, then basolateral nucleus and finally central nucleus
4. Central nucleus sends output signal to areas of the brain that produces a behavioral response to the US (response is a UR)
5. In basolateral nucleus association is made between CS and US
6. When CS is experienced alone it deactivates this association in the basolateral nucleus, output is sent to the central nucleus, which outputs to areas that produce a behavioral response


Contextual conditioning

Takes place in hippocampus
Involves the formation of a representation of an entire context (sights, sounds, smells) and using that representation as the CS that is paired with the US
Once connection is made between US and context that is formed by hippocampus all you have to experience is context to produce output


Modern theory: the role of affect

URs can be interpreted as emotions (affect) depending on the situation



Emotional label we place onto a state of physiological arousal when we are in a situation that may involve danger or personal harm


Types of fear

Unlearned: surprising stimulus
-loud noise
-visual image
-painful stimulus
Produce automatic fear reaction
Pupils dilate
Digestion slows or ceases
Blood pressure rises
learned: result from classical conditioning -fear of spiders
Amygdala is responsible for learned and unlearned


The Amygdala and fear

All learning takes place in these 3 brain structures
1. Lateral input
2. Basolateral association formed
3. Central output

Hypothalamus: fight, flight, food, sex,