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Flashcards in psych test #3 Deck (94):
1

Learning

is a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience

2

Nature vs. Nurture

how we are raised vs who we are biologically

3

Classical Conditioning
(Ivan Pavlov)
(John Watson)

a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus

4

Neutral Stimulus

Produces a reflexive involuntary voluntary response

5

Stimulus

anything that elicits a response

6

emotional conditioning

applying conditioning principles to human behavior

spider -> fear

7

sequencing and time

the stimulus must always be before response

the time between the presentation of the stimuli and the desired response must be short to allow a direct association to be made

8

ucs

the original stimulus that elicits a response is the ucs
in pavlov’s experiment is meat

9

ucr

is a response that occurs naturally

10

ivan pavlov

russian scientist who experimented with dogs
found that dogs learned to pair the sounds in their environment

11

NS+CS
UCR+CR

are always the same

12

classical example

ns: the bell
ucs: the meat
ucr: salivate
cs: the bell
cr: salivate

13

operant conditioning

learning in which voluntary response is strengthened or weakened depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences

14

Consequence

is simply a “reaction” to the stimulus (what happens)

15

Consequence

positive (add)
negative (take away)

16

positive reinforcement

consequence adding something likelihood of behavior increases

ex: studied for a test, got an A, study next time

17

Punishment positive

addition of something to decrease a behavior
(detention)

18

Negative punishment

The removal of something to decrease a behavior (take away a cell phone)

19

negative reinforcement

consequence removing something likelihood behavior increases

ex: took out trash, smell goes away in the house

20

Partial Reinforcement

behavior is not reinforced every time but can be used successfully to make behaviors resistant to extinction

21

Fixed Ratio Schedule

reinforcement is given only after a fixed number of responses (ex: do this 5 times get a reward)

22

Variable Ratio Schedule

reinforcement is given after a varying number of responses is given
(ex: sometimes you get the reinforcement after doing it 5 times/ sometimes 3 times/ sometimes 10 times

23

Fixed interval schedule

reinforcement is given after a specific amount of time. make responses slow

24

Variable Interval Schedule

reinforcement is given after varying lengths of time.
ex: sometimes after an hour, sometimes after 2 hrs

25

Edward Thorndike

conducted experiments using a cat in a puzzle box. cat was starved and locked in a cage next to a dish of food

26

B.F Skinner

skinner box, level to get food

27

Law of effect

consequence will increase or decrease behavior

28

Escape of learning

allows one to terminate an aversive stimulus
ex: gets kicked out of class

29

Avoidance Learning

avoid unpleasant stimulus all together
ex: ditches class

30

Social learning

learning from the behavior of others- learning in all social situations

31

Observational Learning

watching -> learn actions

32

Bobo dolls experiment

kids watch -> act the same

33

Attitude/ how are they formed?

set of beliefs and feelings

34

peripheral route

other aspects influence
- what other aspects of the message push you like like/ dislike something

35

Foot in the door

small -> big request

ex: can i borrow a dollar?, 2 weeks later, can i borrow 5 dollars?

36

Attribution biases

a cognitive bias that refers to the systematic errors made when people evaluate or try to find reasons for their own and others' behaviors.

37

Individualist Cultures

importance of uniqueness of the individual is stressed

38

Stereotypes

judgements, ideas about what members of a different groups are like

39

Discrimination

involves an action- an act on ones prejudice

40

In Group Bias

see yourself as a good person, therefore people who share your group membership are good as well

41

Hostile aggression

no clear purpose

42

pluralistic ignorance

people decide what is appropriate by looking to others

43

social facilitation

people preform better in front of an audience instead of alone

44

obedience studies

willingness to do what others ask them to do

45

Group think

make bad decisions

46

Modeling

showing a person how to behave

47

Social psychology

study devoted to studying the way people relate to each other

48

Mere Exposure Effect

the more someone is exposed to something, the more you will come to like it

49

Relationship b/w attitude behaviors

if you change a persons behavior, you might be able to change their minds

50

Door in the face

big to small
opposite of foot in the door

51

Decisions of attributions are based on what?

consistency and distinctiveness, consensus

52

Consistency

how similarly a person acts in the same situation over time

53

Distinctiveness

How similar this situation is to other situations

54

Fundamental Attribution error

overestimate

55

False Consensus

tendency for people to overestimate the number of people who agree with them

56

Prejudice

negative attitude toward a group of people

57

In Group

people of their own group

58

Contact Theory

groups work toward a goal

59

Pro-Social Behavior

The condition where people nearby are more and less likely to help someone in trouble

60

Attraction

We like people who are similar to us, with whom we are in frequent contact

61

Social Impairment

When a task is more difficult and being watched, performance can be hurt

62

Social Loafing

taking advantage of being part of a group

63

Deindividuation

get swept up by a group and do things they would never do on their own

64

Intrinsic Reinforcement

internal reward

65

Social Cognition

memory and bias to help explain how people think about themselves and others

66

Central Route

process content of message

67

Cognitive Dissonance theory

idea that people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behavior

68

Norms of Reciprocity

if someone does something nice for you, you should return the favor

69

Self Fulfilling Prophecy

idea that expectations we have about others can influence the way other behave

70

Collectivist culture

a persons link to various groups like family or company is stressed

71

Self-Serving bias

Tendency to take more credit for good outcomes than for bad ones

72

Ethnocentrism

belief that ones culture is superior to others

73

out group

the “others” not a part of

74

Instrumental Agression

Aggression is when the aggressive act is intended to secure a particular end

75

Bystander effect

lots of people in a situation- less likely to help because it diffuses the responsibility

76

Factors that increase attraction

similar

77

Conformity

go along w/ views of others

78

Group Polarization

more extreme decisions

79

Albert Bandura

identified 3 basic models of observational learning
-bobo doll

80

Cognitive Conditioning

emphasizes abstract mental process and previous knowledge

81

Latent learning

form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an over + response

82

Abstract learning

involves understanding concepts rather than simply learning to exhibit a behavior to get reward

83

insight learning

a type of learning or problem solving that happen all of the sudden through understanding

84

Schema

the things you know

85

Extinction

behavior no longer exists

86

Discrimination

can tell different w/ object

87

Primary Reinforcement

something rewarding

88

Token Economy

do something good to earn a token, to trade

89

Spontaneous Recovery

Sometimes, after a conditioned response has been extinguished and no further training has taken place, the response reappears with the presentation of the CS

90

Systematic Desensitation

Do the same thing but for something you are afraid of (phobia)

91

Secondary reinforcement

learned to value

92

Generalization

behavior spreads

93

Acquisition

behavior learned

94

Generalized Enforcer

has obtained the reinforcing function by pairing with many other reinforcers