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Flashcards in Psychologists Deck (76):
1

Alfred Adler• •

Neo-Freudian but disagreed with Freud's emphasis on the unconscious, instinctual drives, and the importance of sexuality and had a more positive viewBelieved we are social creatures governed by social urges, we strive for superiorityTalked about how people attempt to compensate for their shortcomings

2

Mary Ainsworth

Secure attachment- stable and positive Anxious-Ambivalent- desire to be with a parent and some resistance to being reunitedAvoidant- tendency to avoid reunion with parent

3

Gordon Allport

Trait TheoristCentral- the core traits that characterize an individual personalitySecondary- traits that are inconsistent or relatively superficialCardinal- so basic that all of a person's activities relate to it

4

Solomon Asch . •

Studied conformity- subjects were shown lines of different lengths and asked which of the lines matched an example line that they were shown, his accomplices gave the wrong answer to see how the actual subject would react to finding that their opinion differed from the group opinion, subjects conformed in about 1/3 of the trials

5

John William Atkinson

Pioneered the study of human motivation, achievement, and behavior

6

Albert Bandura

Studied observational learning in children using a Bobo Doll

7

Sandra Bern

Bern Sex Role Inventory to study femininity, masculinity, androgynyRigid gender stereotypes greatly restrict behaviorStudied gender roles

8

Eric Berne

Transactional Analysis- has elements of cognitive, humanist, and psychoanalytic approaches

9

Alfred Binet

Designed the first intelligence test made up of"intellectual" questions and problems, results were based on average scores for children in each age groupHis test was revised by Lewis Terman and others at Stanford and made into the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, which were used in North America

10

Bowlby

Child development

11

James Cattell

Attachment theory

12

Raymond Cattell

First professor of psychology in the United States, helped establish psychology as a legitimate science

13

1

Surface traits appear in clusters, 16 source traits

14

Jean-Martin Charcot

Known as the founder of modern neurology, taught and influenced Freud

15

.Noam Chomsky

Proposed an innate language acquisition device

16

.Noam Chomsky

Habits make up the structure of personality and are governed by drive, cue, response and reward

17

Hermann Ebbinghaus

Forgetting curve

18

Paul Ekman

Pioneer of the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressionsDevelopmental psychologist

19

Albert Ellis

Cognitive therapist, founder of rational emotive behavioral therapy which attempts to change irrational beliefs that cause emotional problem

20

Erik Erikson

Proposed that development occurs in stages, each stage confronts a person with a new developmental task Trust v. Mistrust, autonomy v. shame and doubt, initiative v. guilt, industry v. inferiority, identity v. role confusion, intimacy v. isolation, generativity v. stagnation, integrity v. despair

21

Hans Eysenck

Trait theoristBig 3- melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic

22

Leon Festinger

Cognitive dissonance

23

Frankl

Existential therapistLogotherapy- emphasized the need to find and maintain meaning in life

24

Anna Freud

Neo-FreudianDisagreed with Freud's theories about women

25

Sigmund Freud

Founder of psychoanalysisId, Ego, SuperegoMany of our behaviors are driven by unconscious motives/desires

26

John Garcia

Studied taste aversion in rats with radiation, decided there was an evolutionary element to taste aversion

27

Howard Gardner

Theorized that there are actually eight different kinds of intelligenceLanguage, logic and math, visual and spatial thinking, music, bodily-kinesthetic kills, intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, naturalist skills

28

Carol Gilligan

Created a theory of moral development in women because male psychologists were overly focused on defining moral maturity in terms of justice and autonomy. She pointed out that there is also an ethic of caring about others that is a major element of moral development.

29

G. Stanley Hall

Founded the American Journal of Psychology

30

Harry Harlow

Seperated baby rhesus monkeys from their mothers at birth, placed with surrogate mothers either made of

31

Heider

GestaltBalance theory, attribution theory

32

Hilgard

Researched hypnosis and its effectiveness as an analgesic "hidden-observer" effect

33

Karen Homey

Neo-FreudianAmong the first to challenge the obvious male bias in Freud's theories, also disagreed with his cause of anxiety-believed that people feel anxious because they feel isolated and helpless in a hostile world, believed causes are rooted in childhood

34

Clark L. Hull

Drive theoryModem study of hypnosis Believes the infants can express several basic emotions as early as 10 weeks of age

35

William James

Wrote Principles of Psychology and helped establish psychology as a serious discipline, regardedconsciousness as a stream or flow of images and sensations

36

Mary Jones

Pioneer of behavior therapyUnconditioned a fear of rabbits in a three year old named Peter

37

Carl Jung

People are either introverts or extrovertsCollective unconscious- mental storehouse forunconscious ideas and images shared by all humans, such universals create archetypesAnima (female principle) & Animus (male principle) exist in everyone

38

Kagan

Showed face masks to 2-yr-olds and found they were fascinated when they saw faces with features in the wrong places

39

Grace Helen Kent

Kent-Rosanoff free association test- psychiatric screening tool using objective scoring and norms Studied human sexuality

40

Kurt Koffka

Co-founder of Gestalt psychology

41

Wolfgang Kohler

Co-founder of Gestalt psychology Studied insight learning in chimpanzees

42

Lawrence Kohlberg

Studied moral development in menPreconventional- Stage 1: punishment orientation Stage 2: pleasure-seeking orientationConventional- Stage 3: Good boy/ good girl orientation Stage 4: Authority orientationPostconventional- Stage 5: social-contract orientation Stage 6: Morality of individual principles

43

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross

Thanatologiest- one who studies death Reactions to impending death- denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

44

Elizabeth Loftus

Along with John Palmer showed people a filmed automobile accident, asked how fast cars were going when they smashed or bumped or contacted, asked if they had seen broken glass in the film (there was none) to study the tendency of people to construct memories based on how they are questioned

45

Konrad Lorenz

Discovered the principle of imprinting Studied instinctive behavior in animals

46

Marcia

Studied adolescent psychological development, elaborated on Erikson's theoriesTheory of identity achievement

47

Abraham Maslow

HumanistSelf-Actualization was importantHierarchy of human needs- physiological needs, safety and security, love and belonging, esteem and self-esteem, self-actualization

48

William Masters & Virginia Johnson

Directly studied sexual intercourse and masturbation in nearly 700 males and femalesSexual response can be divided into four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution

49

McClelland

Believes that IQ is of little value in predicting real competence to deal effectively with the worldIQ predicts school performance, not success in life

50

Margaret Mead

Anthropologist who observed the Tchambuli people of New Guinea, where gender roles are the opposite of those in America

51

Franz Mesmer

Austrian physician who believed he could cure disease with magnetsHis treatments were based on the power of suggestion, not really magnetism and he was later rejected as a fraud The term "mesmerize" comes from his name, his treatments sparked interest in hypnosis

52

Wolfgang Metzger

Gestalt psychologist

53

Stanley Milgram

Studied obedienceTwo subjects ("teacher" and "learner") but the "learner" was actually an actor. The teacher was told to shock the learner every time they answered a question incorrectly to see how far they were willing to go.

54

Ivan Pavlov

Studied classical conditioningPaired a bell with food to make dogs salivate

55

Fritz Perls

Originator of Gestalt therapyConsidered most dreams a special message about what's missing in our lives, what we avoid doing, or feelings that

56

Jean Piaget

Child development occurs in stagesSensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operations

57

Rescorla

Stated that the predictive value of a conditioned stimulus is critical, contingencies are important

58

Carl Rogers

HumanistEmphasized the human capacity for inner peace and happinessPeople need ample amounts of love and acceptance from others

59

Hermann Rorschach

Created the Rorschach inkblot test, a projective test of personality

60

Stanley Schachter

Emotion occurs when we apply a particular label to general physical arousal- we have to interpret our feelings

61

Margaret Singer

Studied and aided hundreds of former cult members Cults use a powerful blend of guilt, manipulation, isolation, deception, fear, and escalating commitment

62

Martin Seligman

Prepared fear theory- we are prepared by evolution to readily develop fears to certain biologically relevant stimuli, such as snakes and spiders

63

Hans Selye

Studied stress- the body responds in the same way to any stress (infection, failure, embarrassment, a new job, trouble at school etc.)General Adaptation Syndrome- a series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress (alarm, resistance, exhaustion)

64

B. F. Skinner

Studied operant conditioning with rats and pigeons Created a Skinner Box

65

Robert Sternberg

Triangular theory of love- love is made up of intimacy, passion and commitment which can combine to produce seven types of love (romantic, liking, fatuous, infatuation, companionate, empty, consummate)Believed insight involved selective incoding, selective combination, and selective comparison

66

Lewis Terman

Revised Binet's intelligence test to help create the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for use in North America, appropriate for people ages 2-90

67

Edward L. Thorndike

Learning theoristLaw of Effect- the probability of a response is altered by the effect it has, acts that are reinforced tend to be repeated

68

Edward Titchener

Carried Wundt's ide`as into the United States and called them structuralism

69

Tolman & Honzik

Studied latent learning in rats with mazes

70

Lev Vygotsky

Sociocultural theoryChildren's thinking develops through dialogues with more capable persons, children actively seek to discover new principlesZone of proximal development- range of tasks a child cannot yet master alone but that she or he can accomplish with the guidance of a more capable partner

71

John B. Watson

BehavioristObjected to the study of the mind or consciousexperience, thought introspection was unscientific Observed stimuli and response, adopted Pavlov's concept of conditioning

72

David Wechsler

Intelligence testing

73

Max Wertheimer

First to advance the Gestalt viewpoint, thought it was a mistake to break psychological experiences down into smaller pieces to analyze

74

Wilhelm Wundt

Father of psychology- set up the first psychological laboratory to study conscious experienceIntrospection

75

Yerkes & Dodson

Yerkes Dodson law- the ideal level of arousal depends on the complexity of a task: If the task is more complex your performance will be better at lower levels of arousalIf the task is simple it is best for arousal level to be high

76

Philip Zimbardo

Stanford prison experimentStudents volunteered to play the roles of prisoners and guards, experiment had to be called off after 6 days, rather than the planned 2 weeks because the guards had become so sadistic that four of the ten prisoners suffered severe emotional issues