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Flashcards in Psychologists Deck (76):

Alfred Adler• •

Neo-Freudian but disagreed with Freud's emphasis on the unconscious, instinctual drives, and the importance of sexuality and had a more positive viewBelieved we are social creatures governed by social urges, we strive for superiorityTalked about how people attempt to compensate for their shortcomings


Mary Ainsworth

Secure attachment- stable and positive Anxious-Ambivalent- desire to be with a parent and some resistance to being reunitedAvoidant- tendency to avoid reunion with parent


Gordon Allport

Trait TheoristCentral- the core traits that characterize an individual personalitySecondary- traits that are inconsistent or relatively superficialCardinal- so basic that all of a person's activities relate to it


Solomon Asch . •

Studied conformity- subjects were shown lines of different lengths and asked which of the lines matched an example line that they were shown, his accomplices gave the wrong answer to see how the actual subject would react to finding that their opinion differed from the group opinion, subjects conformed in about 1/3 of the trials


John William Atkinson

Pioneered the study of human motivation, achievement, and behavior


Albert Bandura

Studied observational learning in children using a Bobo Doll


Sandra Bern

Bern Sex Role Inventory to study femininity, masculinity, androgynyRigid gender stereotypes greatly restrict behaviorStudied gender roles


Eric Berne

Transactional Analysis- has elements of cognitive, humanist, and psychoanalytic approaches


Alfred Binet

Designed the first intelligence test made up of"intellectual" questions and problems, results were based on average scores for children in each age groupHis test was revised by Lewis Terman and others at Stanford and made into the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, which were used in North America



Child development


James Cattell

Attachment theory


Raymond Cattell

First professor of psychology in the United States, helped establish psychology as a legitimate science



Surface traits appear in clusters, 16 source traits


Jean-Martin Charcot

Known as the founder of modern neurology, taught and influenced Freud


.Noam Chomsky

Proposed an innate language acquisition device


.Noam Chomsky

Habits make up the structure of personality and are governed by drive, cue, response and reward


Hermann Ebbinghaus

Forgetting curve


Paul Ekman

Pioneer of the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressionsDevelopmental psychologist


Albert Ellis

Cognitive therapist, founder of rational emotive behavioral therapy which attempts to change irrational beliefs that cause emotional problem


Erik Erikson

Proposed that development occurs in stages, each stage confronts a person with a new developmental task Trust v. Mistrust, autonomy v. shame and doubt, initiative v. guilt, industry v. inferiority, identity v. role confusion, intimacy v. isolation, generativity v. stagnation, integrity v. despair


Hans Eysenck

Trait theoristBig 3- melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic


Leon Festinger

Cognitive dissonance



Existential therapistLogotherapy- emphasized the need to find and maintain meaning in life


Anna Freud

Neo-FreudianDisagreed with Freud's theories about women


Sigmund Freud

Founder of psychoanalysisId, Ego, SuperegoMany of our behaviors are driven by unconscious motives/desires


John Garcia

Studied taste aversion in rats with radiation, decided there was an evolutionary element to taste aversion


Howard Gardner

Theorized that there are actually eight different kinds of intelligenceLanguage, logic and math, visual and spatial thinking, music, bodily-kinesthetic kills, intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, naturalist skills


Carol Gilligan

Created a theory of moral development in women because male psychologists were overly focused on defining moral maturity in terms of justice and autonomy. She pointed out that there is also an ethic of caring about others that is a major element of moral development.


G. Stanley Hall

Founded the American Journal of Psychology


Harry Harlow

Seperated baby rhesus monkeys from their mothers at birth, placed with surrogate mothers either made of



GestaltBalance theory, attribution theory



Researched hypnosis and its effectiveness as an analgesic "hidden-observer" effect


Karen Homey

Neo-FreudianAmong the first to challenge the obvious male bias in Freud's theories, also disagreed with his cause of anxiety-believed that people feel anxious because they feel isolated and helpless in a hostile world, believed causes are rooted in childhood


Clark L. Hull

Drive theoryModem study of hypnosis Believes the infants can express several basic emotions as early as 10 weeks of age


William James

Wrote Principles of Psychology and helped establish psychology as a serious discipline, regardedconsciousness as a stream or flow of images and sensations


Mary Jones

Pioneer of behavior therapyUnconditioned a fear of rabbits in a three year old named Peter


Carl Jung

People are either introverts or extrovertsCollective unconscious- mental storehouse forunconscious ideas and images shared by all humans, such universals create archetypesAnima (female principle) & Animus (male principle) exist in everyone



Showed face masks to 2-yr-olds and found they were fascinated when they saw faces with features in the wrong places


Grace Helen Kent

Kent-Rosanoff free association test- psychiatric screening tool using objective scoring and norms Studied human sexuality


Kurt Koffka

Co-founder of Gestalt psychology


Wolfgang Kohler

Co-founder of Gestalt psychology Studied insight learning in chimpanzees


Lawrence Kohlberg

Studied moral development in menPreconventional- Stage 1: punishment orientation Stage 2: pleasure-seeking orientationConventional- Stage 3: Good boy/ good girl orientation Stage 4: Authority orientationPostconventional- Stage 5: social-contract orientation Stage 6: Morality of individual principles


Elizabeth Kubler-Ross

Thanatologiest- one who studies death Reactions to impending death- denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance


Elizabeth Loftus

Along with John Palmer showed people a filmed automobile accident, asked how fast cars were going when they smashed or bumped or contacted, asked if they had seen broken glass in the film (there was none) to study the tendency of people to construct memories based on how they are questioned


Konrad Lorenz

Discovered the principle of imprinting Studied instinctive behavior in animals



Studied adolescent psychological development, elaborated on Erikson's theoriesTheory of identity achievement


Abraham Maslow

HumanistSelf-Actualization was importantHierarchy of human needs- physiological needs, safety and security, love and belonging, esteem and self-esteem, self-actualization


William Masters & Virginia Johnson

Directly studied sexual intercourse and masturbation in nearly 700 males and femalesSexual response can be divided into four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution



Believes that IQ is of little value in predicting real competence to deal effectively with the worldIQ predicts school performance, not success in life


Margaret Mead

Anthropologist who observed the Tchambuli people of New Guinea, where gender roles are the opposite of those in America


Franz Mesmer

Austrian physician who believed he could cure disease with magnetsHis treatments were based on the power of suggestion, not really magnetism and he was later rejected as a fraud The term "mesmerize" comes from his name, his treatments sparked interest in hypnosis


Wolfgang Metzger

Gestalt psychologist


Stanley Milgram

Studied obedienceTwo subjects ("teacher" and "learner") but the "learner" was actually an actor. The teacher was told to shock the learner every time they answered a question incorrectly to see how far they were willing to go.


Ivan Pavlov

Studied classical conditioningPaired a bell with food to make dogs salivate


Fritz Perls

Originator of Gestalt therapyConsidered most dreams a special message about what's missing in our lives, what we avoid doing, or feelings that


Jean Piaget

Child development occurs in stagesSensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operations



Stated that the predictive value of a conditioned stimulus is critical, contingencies are important


Carl Rogers

HumanistEmphasized the human capacity for inner peace and happinessPeople need ample amounts of love and acceptance from others


Hermann Rorschach

Created the Rorschach inkblot test, a projective test of personality


Stanley Schachter

Emotion occurs when we apply a particular label to general physical arousal- we have to interpret our feelings


Margaret Singer

Studied and aided hundreds of former cult members Cults use a powerful blend of guilt, manipulation, isolation, deception, fear, and escalating commitment


Martin Seligman

Prepared fear theory- we are prepared by evolution to readily develop fears to certain biologically relevant stimuli, such as snakes and spiders


Hans Selye

Studied stress- the body responds in the same way to any stress (infection, failure, embarrassment, a new job, trouble at school etc.)General Adaptation Syndrome- a series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress (alarm, resistance, exhaustion)


B. F. Skinner

Studied operant conditioning with rats and pigeons Created a Skinner Box


Robert Sternberg

Triangular theory of love- love is made up of intimacy, passion and commitment which can combine to produce seven types of love (romantic, liking, fatuous, infatuation, companionate, empty, consummate)Believed insight involved selective incoding, selective combination, and selective comparison


Lewis Terman

Revised Binet's intelligence test to help create the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for use in North America, appropriate for people ages 2-90


Edward L. Thorndike

Learning theoristLaw of Effect- the probability of a response is altered by the effect it has, acts that are reinforced tend to be repeated


Edward Titchener

Carried Wundt's ide`as into the United States and called them structuralism


Tolman & Honzik

Studied latent learning in rats with mazes


Lev Vygotsky

Sociocultural theoryChildren's thinking develops through dialogues with more capable persons, children actively seek to discover new principlesZone of proximal development- range of tasks a child cannot yet master alone but that she or he can accomplish with the guidance of a more capable partner


John B. Watson

BehavioristObjected to the study of the mind or consciousexperience, thought introspection was unscientific Observed stimuli and response, adopted Pavlov's concept of conditioning


David Wechsler

Intelligence testing


Max Wertheimer

First to advance the Gestalt viewpoint, thought it was a mistake to break psychological experiences down into smaller pieces to analyze


Wilhelm Wundt

Father of psychology- set up the first psychological laboratory to study conscious experienceIntrospection


Yerkes & Dodson

Yerkes Dodson law- the ideal level of arousal depends on the complexity of a task: If the task is more complex your performance will be better at lower levels of arousalIf the task is simple it is best for arousal level to be high


Philip Zimbardo

Stanford prison experimentStudents volunteered to play the roles of prisoners and guards, experiment had to be called off after 6 days, rather than the planned 2 weeks because the guards had become so sadistic that four of the ten prisoners suffered severe emotional issues