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Flashcards in Psychology 2 Deck (169):

  • Consciousness
    • Sleep
      • Sleep-Wake Disorders
        • Define Dissomnias
          • Name the 3 types 

  • is difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or avoiding sleep
  1. Insomnia
  2. Sleep Apnea
  3. Narcolepsy


  • Language
    • Describe the Learning Theory

  • The behaviorist (or learning) theory of language development asserts that we are born without any knowledge of language
    • we learn language through classical learning mechanisms (e.g. being reinforced for engaging in linguistic behavior) and through observational learning


  • Consciousness
    • List the 5 drug types and examples
      • what makes the 5th type unique?

  1. Depressants
    • Alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines 
  2. Stimulants
    • amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy
  3. Halucinagens
    • LSD, peyote, shrooms
  4. Pain Killers
    • opiates, opioids
  5. Marijuana
    • listed separately, because it can be classified as a stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogen based on its various FX


  • Barriers to Effective Problem Solving or Decision Making
    • Functional Fixedness

  • one example of a mental set in which, when solving a problem, we can only visualize using an object or tool in the ways we have seen it used previously 


  • Information Processing Theory
    • Describe Obstacle Evaluation

  • An individual's skill level in problem-solving experiences does not depend solely on their cognitive development level, but largely on the nature and context of the problem/obstacle


  • Theories of Motivation
    • Needs-Based Theory
      • Self-Determination Theory
        • What 3 factors does it stress the importance of? 

  • emphasizes the motivational importance of:
    • Autonomy
      • sense that one is in control of their own life choices
    • Competence
      • feeling capable at a task
      • the ability to excel at something
    • Relatedness
      • a sense of being accepted in social settings or relationships 


  • Biological and Sociocultural Motivators
    • Describe Opponent-Process Theory

  • Opponent-process theory is a centered on homeostatic principles.
  • Whenever we take some substance this creates a physiological and psychological state that pushes us away from the norm.
  • For example, a drug like heroin can produce a sense of euphoria along with potent analgesia, antitussive, and anti-diarrheal properties.
    • If we use heroin routinely, then the body “learns” to expect heroin to come on board. In an effort to maintain homeostasis, the body then mounts an opponent process which will create symptoms that are in the opposite direction of the heroin itself.
    • Over time, this opponent process will onset earlier and earlier and will grow stronger and stronger until at some point the effects of the drugs are completely offset.
      • We often describe such an experience as tolerance.
    • In order to achieve the positive effects, we would need to take larger and larger doses of the drug. If we ever skipped the drug, we’d experience withdrawal from the drug. Now the drug free state would be marked by dysphoria, increased sensitivity to pain, coughing, and diarrhea.
    • Some users would then continue to use the drug to avoid the negative symptoms associated with withdrawal. 


  • Theories of Motivation
    • List the 6 theories we need to know

  1. Instinct Theory
  2. Arousal Theory
  3. Drive Reduction Theory
  4. Needs-Based Theory
    • Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs
    • ERG Theory
    • Self-Determination Theory
  5. Incentive Theory
  6. Cognitive Theory
    • Expectancy-Value Theory


  • Consciousness
    • Sleep
      • Sleep-Wake disorders
        • Define Parasomnia
          • list and describe the 2 types 

  • are abnormal movements, behavior, perceptions, or emotions during sleep 
  1. Sleep walking (aka "sommambulism")
  2. Night Terrors (aka "pavor nocturnus")
    • experience of severe anxiety, dread, or terror during the first few hours of stages 3-4 (non-REM) sleep
    • Most common in children
    • Associated with screaming, thrashing, suddenly sitting up in bed, and hyperstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system


  • The Self
    • Self-Esteem
      • Actual Self

  • The actual self is our self-concept. It’s who we (or others) think we are and which attributes we (or others) think that we possess.

  • The ideal/ ought self serves as internal “guides” for the self-concept to be measured against.  


  • Consciousness
    • Drug-Altered States
      • Describe the Drug Addiction & Reward pathway in the brain

  •  Drug addiction stimulates a dopamine-based reward pathway in the limbit system of the brain.


  • Emotions
    • What evidence supports Darwin's claim that emotion evolved via natural selection? 

  • some emotions are tied to evolutionarily "older" parts of the brain
    • ex: universal emotion of Disgust includes scrunching of the nose and mouth
      • limits intake of foul odors 
    • Fear involves widening of eyes, which allow more light in for visual identification 


  • Factors that affect attitude change
    • Characteristics model
      • Source
        • define
        • what affects chances of success? 

  • person or source delivering the message
  • Increased likelihood of persuasion with:
    • Attractiveness
    • Expertise
    • Trustworthiness
    • Credibility
      • often because of social roles 


  • Response to stressors
    • Managing Stress
      • Name & describe the 2 approaches
      • What are the 3 "Proven Tools" for stress mgmt?

  • Problem-solving approach
    • find solutions, obtain help, stress prevention plan, etc.
  • Emotional Approach
    • change how you feel about the stressor through:
      •  positive thinking,
      • taking personal responsibility,
      • having an internal locus of control
  1. Exercise
  2. Relaxation
  3. Spirituality


  • Consciousness
    • Drug-Altered States
      • What are some things alcohol does in the body?

  • is a depressant drug
  • increases the activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA 
    • GABA binds a membrane receptor that allows Cl- ions to flow through the axon membrane into the nerve cell 


  • Emotion
    • Describe the Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion
      • What 2 components make it up?

  • The Schachter-Singer theory, therefore, posits that emotions are composed of 2 factors:
    • physiological component 
    • cognitive component.
  • Here, physiological arousal is interpreted in context which leads to the emotional experience. 


  • Consciousness

    • Describe Sleep

      • how do cortisol and melatonin relate to it?

  • a regular state of rest and reduced consciousness 
  • deemed physologically necessary at approximate 24 hr intervals (i.e. circadian rhythms)
  • Cortisol levels are higher when a person is awake and alert and lower during sleep
  • The hormone melatonin is released by the pineal gland
    • at least in part b/c of decreasing levels of light 


  • Theories of Motivation
    • Needs-Based Theories
      • ERG Theory vs Maslow's Heirarchy

  • ERG is an early adaptation of Maslow's Heirarchy
  • The ERG theory essentially distills Maslow’s needs into three different categories:

    • existence needs,

      • combine Maslow’s physiological and safety needs into one category.

    • relatedness needs, and

      • combine portions of Maslow’s love/belonging needs and esteem needs.

    • growth needs.

      • combine portions of Maslow’s esteem needs and self-actualization needs.

    • ERG theory does present these needs in an heirarchal fashion.
    • While Maslow thought an individual would need to satisfy lower level needs before moving on to higher needs, this is not the case in ERG theory because an individual can be motivated by needs from each category simultaneously


  • Approaches to Problem Solving

    • Heuristics

      • Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic

  • giving higher priority to the very first piece of info received and/or framing subsequent information around it


  • Theories of Motivation
    • Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs
      • know some examples from each 

  • Self-Actualization
    • morality
    • creativity
    • spontaneity
    • problem solving
    • lack of prejudice
    • acceptance of facts
  • Esteem
    • self-esteem
    • confidence
    • achievement
    • respect OF others
    • respect BY others
  • Love/Belonging
    • friendship
    • family
    • sexy time (sexual intimacy)
  • Safety
    • Security of:
      • body
      • employment
      • resources
      • morality
      • family 
      • health
      • property
  • Physiological
    • breathing
    • food
    • water
    • sex
    • homeostasis
    • excretion


  • Emotions
    • Name Ekman's 7 "Universal Emotions"

  1. Fear
  2. Anger
  3. Happiness
  4. Surprise
  5. Joy
  6. Disgust
  7. Sadness


  • Theories of Intelligence
    • "Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences"
      • describe it (in general) 

  • Gardner identified 8 types of intelligence
  • His theory challenges the concept that all students learn in the same way
    • or that numerical measures of intelligence are sufficient 
  • Gardner said IQ tests only test the last 2 types of intelligence (Linguistic & Logical-Mathematical) 


  • Information Processing Theory
    • Describe Thinking

  • includes perception of stimuli, encoding of that stimuli, and storage of that stimuli for later retrieval


  • Attitude
    • Name and describe the 3 primary components of attitude



  • Biological and Sociocultural Motivators 
    • Name 3 examples

  • Hunger
  • Sex Drive
  • Substance Addiction


  • The Self
    • Self-Image
      • Define
      • What set it apart from the other Selfs?
      • What questions does it answer?
      • Think: ?

  • A persistent mental picture of one'sappearance and personality
    • Includes observable traits
      • height, weight
    • and self-knowledge derived from experience or internalization of judgments of others
      • People think I'm handsome
  • Different from other "self-terms" because it is MY mental picture of MY personal characteristics
  • Answers:
    • "How do I see myself?"
    • "How do others see me (in ways I've internalized)?"
    • "How do I think others see me?"


  • Approaches to Problem Solving
    • Heuristics

      • Representative Heuristic

  • Reliance on prototypes or stereotypes as a shortcut to making a decision or judgment 
    • Guy wearing tweed jacket & horn rimmed glasses must be a professor, because thats what professors wear (stereotype) 


  • Responding to the environment
    • Define Emotion

  • a complex psychological state of mind involving ones mood, feelings, and reactions to circumstances 


  • Factors that affect Attitude change
    • Changing behavior

  • because attitudes reflect (and often mirror) behavior, one is:
  • more likely to have a NEW attitude if the have a NEW behavior
  • more likely to retain OLD attitudes if their behavior remains constant


  • Theories of Intelligence
    • Binet

  • First to develop an intelligence scale
    • the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale
  • Developed concept of MENTAL AGE vs CHRONOLOGICAL AGE
  • His purpose was to identify children who needed extra educational help or attention in school
    • Stanford-Binet IQ Test widely used today


  • Factors that affect attitude change

    • Characteristics model

      • Cognitive Routes

        • define Main & Peripheral Routes

  • The nature of the approach to persuasion
    • Main Route:
      • presentation of the data/information to the target and asking them to change their mind after evaluating the information
    • Peripheral Route
      • suggesting the target IGNORE data/information and decide based on the reliability of the source


Define Attention

  • Concentration on one aspect of environmental stimuli while ignoring other stimuli


  • Consciousness
    • Define Hypnosis
      • What can it help do when induced?

  • trance-like state under which a person becomes highly suggestible
  • it is induced by a therapist and can serve to recall:
    • repressed emotions,
    • control pain, or
    • stop undesirable behavior 


  • The Self
    • Self-Esteem
      • Define
      • What sets it apart from other "Self-terms?"
      • What questions does it answer?
      • Think: ?

  • A person's overall senses of self-worth or personal value
    • relatively stable & enduring
  • Different from other "Self-terms" because it is a valuation judgment of one's worth
  • Answers:
    • "How do I feel about myself?"
    • "Why am I of worth?"


  • Other influences on Cognitive Development
    • Heredity

  • Inheritance of genetic dispositions
    • ex: inherited disorders such as Down's Syndrome or Autism


  • Theories of Intelligence

    • Galton's Theory

      • Describe it

      • What 3 main things did Galton introduce?

  • argued that individual heritable characteristics contributed to intelligence AS MUCH AS ANY GENE CONTRIBUTES TO PHYSICAL TRAITS
  • "Genetic Intelligence"
  • Also pioneered Nature vs. Nurture debate


  • The link between Attitude & Behavior

    • Behavior influences Attitude

      • Describe the Self-Perception Theory

  • Suggests that actions influence attitudes, because people infer their attitudes by observing THEIR OWN behavior 


  • Language
    • Define Phonology

  • focuses on the phonemes (sound units within a given language) and how they can be combined in meaningful ways. 


  • Other influences on Cognitive Development
    • Culture

  • different expectations and traditions
  • different cultures will reward different behaviors because of different values


  • Approaches to Problem Solving
    • Describe Trial and Error
      • when is the only time it is effective?

  • try it out, test both or multiple options, and discover what works and what doesnt. 
  • only effective when there are relatively few options available


  • Cognitive Development (CD)
    • Name Piaget's 4 Stages of CD

  1. Sensorimotor
  2. Preoperational
  3. Concrete operational
  4. Formal operational


  • Response to stressors
    • describe our emotional and behavioral response to stressors (NOT how we remove stressors)

  • Emotional
    • stress leads to negative moods and emotions
  • Behavioral
    • Stress leads to negative behavior, such as:
      • increased substance abuse
      • social withdrawal
      • aggression
      • mental health probs 


  • Theories of Attitude & Behavior Change
    • Social Cognitive Theory of Attitude change
      • Describe
      • What did Alfre Bandura suggest about it?

  • predicts that attitudes will change because of observational learning experience by the person doing the changing
  • Bandura suggests that it is about how 
    • Observation
    • personal factors
    • environment
  • ...interact with e/o to produce learning, and thereby CHANGE 


  • Emotion
    • Describe the Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
      • What's one knock against it?

  • Asserts that the physiological arousal and emotional experience occur at the same time
    • Because the activation of the sympathetic nervous system looks similar regardless of whether we encounter a threat or the love of our lives
  • In other words, fear is felt at the exact same time that sympathetic nervous system activation occurs.
  •  However, research indicates that if signals of physiological arousal are blocked, then the emotional experience is blunted


  • Factors that affect attitude change

    • Social Factors

  • Social norms can either direct or inhibit attitude change
    • people generally seek to align themselves with socially acceptable attitudes & behavior
  • If an attitude change requires rejecting social norms, it will be more difficult to achieve
    • ex: being baptized a mormon
  • Indivs in a group want to avoid conflict and seek harmony (groupthink)
    • this may influence attitude or behavior changes not otherwise made
  • Social Roles lend credibility to person ("source") doing the persuading


  • Approaches to Problem Solving

    • Heuristics

      • Availability Heuristic

  • Favoring the most easily recalled or imagined solution as a shortcut to making a decision or judgment 


  • Theories of Intelligence

    • Galton

      • Describe Eugenics

  • any belief, method, or practice designed to improve the genetic makeup of the human race
    • usually by preventing:
      • birth
      • reproduction rate
      • survival 
  • ...of people with "less disirable" genes 


  • Stress
    • Stressors
      • Give some examples of Cataclysmic and Personal Events

  • Cataclysmic Events
    • Animal attacks, severe weather, wars, etc.
  • Personal Events 
    • new job, being late, traffic, increased responsibility, etc.


  • Theories of Attitude and Behavior Change
    • Learning Theory of Attitude Change

  • Attitudes can be changed by LEARNING
    • this includes:
      • classical conditioning
        • associating positive feelings with the target attitude
      • operant conditioning,
        • reinforcing the desired attitude or punishing the undesirable one
      • observational learning 
        • modeling the desirable attitude can lead to change 


  • Emotion and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) 
    • Name & describe the 4 physiological markers of emotion (outward signs)

  • Skin Temp
    • lower during fear, higher during anger 
  • Skin Conductivity
    • indicator of general stimulation of the sympathetic NS
  • Heart Rate
    • higher during anger or fear, lower during happines (!)
  • Blood Pressure
    • ​​​Higher during anger, fear, sadness, AND HAPPINESS


  • Consciousness
    • States of consciousness
      • Describe Brain waves (4 types), and their relative frequencies 

  • =Level of consciousness is associated with different brain waves patterns on an electroencephalograph (EEG)
  1. Alpha: VERY  relaxed, of MEDITATING
  2. Beta: awake and alert
  3. Theta: light sleep
  4. Delta: Deep sleep 


  • The Self
    • Self-Esteem
      • Ideal Self

  • The ideal self is a representation of characteristics that we (or others) would ideally like to possess.
  • Again, when there are discrepancies between the actual self and the ought or ideal self, we experience emotional discomfort that can contribute to lowered self-esteem. However, these discrepancies might also serve as motivation to move the actual self towards the ought or ideal self and ultimately a higher level of emotional satisfaction and self-esteem. 


  • Factors that affect attitude change

    • Characteristics Model

      • Message

        • define

        • what leads to higher likelihood of persuasion?

  • The actual words, images, or other information presented to the target
  • Balance (presenting both sides of an issue)
    • leads to an 


  • Approaches to Problem Solving

    • Inductive Reasoning, aka?

  • Aka "Bottom-Up" Reasoning 


  • Attention
    • Define Divided Attention

  • when you do something like drive a car while talking with someone in the passenger seat
  • tasks that require divided attention require us to split our attention among multiple tasks


  • Describe "Belief Preserverance"
    • give an example

  • In cases in which we are confronted with evidence that clearly contradicts our previously held belief, yet continue to hold onto it, we are engaging in belief perseverance.

  • To expand on the example from above, someone would be demonstrating belief perseverance if they continue to assert that elderly people make poor drivers even after reading a news story that indicates that a much higher percentage of younger drivers are involved in automobile accidents than elderly drivers.  


  • The Self
    • Self-Schemas
      • Define
      • How does it differ from other Selfs?
      • What questions does it answer?
      • Think: ?

  • a pre-existing, organized pattern of thought about oneself that is used to categorize or process information 
  • Different from other selfs because it is my cognitive framework ABOUT MYSELF
    • "I am an athlete, therefore I make friends who are also athletic"
  • Answers the questions:
    • "What does this mean [based on my schema]?" 
    • "How will I act [based on my schema]?"


  • Approaches to Problem Solving

    • Describe Heuristics

      • what can it be helpful for? 

      • What can it lead to a lack of?

  • ="Rules of Thumb"
  • Can be helpful in problem solving, but can also cause functional fixedness and a lack of cognitive flexibility
  • Heuristics help you make a FAST (but often INACCURATE) judgment 


  • Attention 
    • Define The Cocktail Party Effect

  • instance in which we may suddenly shift our attention to something that was previously ignored because of some cue that draws our attention
  • Ex: having a conversation with someone when somebody in the mentions your name in another conversation
    • our attention shifts to hear what is being said to/about us


  • The Self
    • Self-Identity
      • Describe
      • What differs it from other Selfs
      • What question does it answer?
      • Think: ?

  • Those descriptive characteristics, qualities, and abilities people use to define themselves
  • Different from other self terms because it is how I define myself
  • Answers:
    • "Who do I think that I am?"


  • Consciousness
    • Describe Meditation

  • An intentionally altered state of consciousness intended to improve focus or overall well-being.
  • Meditation is a part of many religious beliefs. It is not well defined scientifically, but it has been shown to be associated with a relaxed, slower wave state of arousal reproducible on an EEG. 


  • Behavior influences Attitude

    • Role-Playing Effects

      • Describe the Zimbardo Prison Study

  • A psychologist staged interactions between two groups of college students,
    • one group playing the role of prison guards,
    • the other the role of prisoners.
  • Within only six days, the attitudes of the “guards” had become so harsh and domineering, and the attitudes of the “prisoners” had become so despondent, defiant, or depressed, that Zimbardo ended the study (!!) prematurely on ethical grounds.


  • Theories of Intelligence

    • Galton

      • Nature vs Nurture debate

        • What side does Galton take?  Why? What did this cause Galton to be a strong proponent of? 

  • When you see Galton, think:
    • NATURE, not Nurture 
  • ​Despite his twin studies proving groundbreaking evidence supporting NURTURE, Galton leaned toward NATURE  as the stronger genetic component
    • led him to be a strong supporter of Eugenics 


  • Language 
    • Define Pragmatics

  • refers to the ability to competently use language appropriately in any given social context. 


  • Define Schemas
    • how do people use schemas to process new info?

  •  are patterns of thought that we use to create categories of information or behavior and to understand the relationship that exists among those categories
  • they allow us to speed up processing of the tremendous amount of information that bombards us each day, but they can also bias the ways in which we deal with new information to create stereotypes about a category of individuals or objects and prevent us from retaining information that doesn’t fit the schema. 


  • Attention
    • Define Selective Attention
      • what can it lead to?

  • refers to process by which we focus on one aspect in our environments while ignoring others
  • it can lead to inattentional blindless
    • ex: moonwalking gorilla video


  • Theories of Motivation
    • Cognitive Theory
      • Expectancy-Value Theory

  • The magnitude of one's motivation to engage in a behavior is a function of an interplay b/t:
    • an individual's expectation of success
    • the perception of the relative value of the rewards associated with success 
  • "What are my chances? Is it worth the time & effort?" 


  • Theories of Intelligence

    • Spearman

  • introduced concept of GENERAL INTELLIGENCE
    • often called "the g factor"
  • Spearman argued that general intelligence was the bedrock intellect from which all other forms of intelligence are developed 


  • Brain regions involved in the experience of emotion
    • Describe Emotional Memory
      • what are its 2 components? Describe them

  • an emotional memory has 2 components:
    • Explicit portion
      • CONSCIOUS memory of having experienced the emotion
    • Implicit portion
      • UNCONSCIOUS encoding and storage of the actual feeling
      • May be retrieved, and the emotion can be "felt again" when...
        • one encounters a similar experience
        • during explicit recall of the original event  


  • Cognition
    • Who was Jean Piaget? 

  • Father of developmental psychology
  • Major developer of Cognitive Theory


  • Stress
    • Differentiate b/t Distress and Eustress 
      • hint: "Eu-" prefix means "good"

  • Eustress
    • stress arising from positive/pleasant aspects of life
      • graduating, getting married, etc.
  • Distress
    • stress arising from negative/unpleasant aspects of life
      • bad grades, losing your job, etc.


  • What does a graph of Yerkes-Dodson Law of arousal-based performance look like with simple tasks compared to hard tasks?


  • Language
    • Describe the Interactionist Theory

  • interactionist theory of language development asserts that language acquisition occurs in predictable, fixed stages of development. 


  • Consciousness
    • Dreaming
      • Cognitive Theory (Hall)

  • Dreams are a conceptualization of our experiences
  • they are visualizations of our thoughts and perceptions about 5 concepts:
    1. our self
    2. others
    3. the world around us
    4. morals
    5. conflict 


  • Jean Piaget's 4 Stages of CD
    • Describe Preoperational
      • At what age range does it occur?

  • Symbolic thinking
  • use of proper syntax and grammar to express full concepts
  • Imagination & Intuition  are STRONG 
    • but complex abstract thought is still difficult 
  • Conservation developed 

Age range: 2-7 years 


  • Jean Piaget's 4 Stages of CD

    • Describe Formal Operational

      • At what age range does it occur?

  • Theoretical, hypothetical, and counterfactual thinking
  • Abstract logic & reasoning
  • Strategy and planning become possible
  • Concepts learned in one context can be applied to another 
  • Age Range: 11+


  • Describe "Overconfidence"


  • Theories of Intelligence

    • List Gardner's 8 types of intelligence

      • which 2 are favored by western culture?

  1. Visual-Spatial
  2. Bodily-Kinesthetic
  3. Musical
  4. Interpersonal
  5. Intrapersonal
  6. Naturalistic
  7. Linguistic
  8. Logical-Mathematical


  • Consciousness
    • Name the 6 states of consciousness

  1. Alertness 
  2. Sleep
  3. Dreaming
  4. Hypnosis
  5. Meditation
  6. Drug-Altered


  • Consciousness

    • Sleep

      • List and Describe the 4 phases of sleep

1.) Stage one

  • Falling asleep
    • EEG is a mix of  alpha and theta waves 

2.) Stage two

  • Deeper sleep
    • EEG is theta waves mixed with sleep spindles and K complexes 

3.) Stage three

  • Transitional
    • EEG is mostly theta waves, but delta waves begin to appear

4. )Stage four

  • Deep sleep
    • often called "Delta Sleep," because EEG contains slow (low frequency) delta waves  


  • Consciousness
    • Sleep
      • Sleep-Wake Disorders
        • Physiological FX of chronic sleep deprivation
          • (+) correlated with what?

  • Positively correlated with:
    • decreased cognitive functioning
    • depression
    • multiple chronic diseases including:
      • heart disease
      • high blood pressure
      • obesity
      • diabetes


  • Consciousness
    • Dreaming
      • Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)

  • Dreams are expressions of unconscious  desires, thoughts, and motivations
  • dreams can serve as a virtual form of wish fulfillment 


  • Language
    • list the 3 theories of language development

  1. Learning (aka Environmental or Behaviorist)
  2. Nativist (aka Biological) 
  3. Interactionist


  • Language
    • Define Syntax

  • refers to the rules that govern how words are ordered into meaningful sentences. Colloquially, we refer to syntax as the rules of grammar


  • Language
    • Describe the Nativist Theory

  • The nativist (or psycholinguistic) theory asserts that humans are prewired for language at birth and that language will naturally emerge as we grow and interact with our environments. 


  • Language
    • How do Broca's & Wernicke's Areas communicate with e/o?
    • What does this connection enable?

  • via a bundle of axons called the arcuate fasciculus
  • this connection allows integration of language comprehension (Wernicke's) and speech (Broca's) 


  • Factors that affect Attitude change

    • Characteristics model

      • what does it propose? What are the 4 characteristics of it?

  • Carl Hovland proposed that attitude change is best accomplished when we consider the characteristics of the:
    • Target
    • Source
    • Message
    • Cognitive Routes (Main & Peripheral)


  • Behavior influences Attitude
    • Describe Role-Playing Effects
      • what's a classic example of this? 

  • A person acting out a role is likely to internalize the attitudes associated with that role.
  • In this case, one’s own behavior (acting a part) directly impacts, almost determines, the attitudes they will hold.
  • Ex: Zimbardo Prison Study


  • Consciousness
    • Sleep
      • Sleep-Wake Disorders
        • Dissomnias
          • Differentiate b/t Insomnia and Sleep Apnea

  • Insomnia
    • Difficulty falling or staying asleep
  • Sleep Apnea
    • Difficulty breathing while asleep


  • Approaches to Problem Solving

    • What are Algorithms?

  • mathematical formulas


  • a step-by-step, flowchart-like approach 


  • Schemas
    • What generally happens when a person finds new info that doesnt fit w/in one of their existing schemas?

  •  We often assimilate new information to fit into an existing schema, but we can also accommodate, or amend, the schema to include new information


  • Other influences on Cognitive Development
    • Biology

  • metabolic or other biological conditions can alter cognition or cause brain damage 


  • Consciousness
    • Sleep
      • REM Sleep
        • Paradoxical Sleep

  • Phase used to describe the ironic fact that during REM sleep our alertness, heart rate, breathing, and EEG patterns are NEARLY IDENTICAL compared to waking hours
    • .....but our muscles are PARALYZED!!! :(


  • The link between Behavior & Attitude
    • Define Cognitive Dissonance Theory

  • is a state of unpleasant psychological tension experienced when one holds TWO ATTITUDES OR BELIEFS that are in conflict
    • ​A person is likely to ease the tension by changing their attitude or belief to remove the tension
  • Shows that our behaviors and attitudes are often in conflict 


  • The Self
    • Self-Efficacy
      • Describe
      • How does it differ from other selfs?
      • What questions does it answer?
      • Think: ?

  • The strength of a person's belief in their own abilities
  • Differs from other selfs because it is a self-evaluation of one's own ability
  • Answers:
    • "What am I capable of doing?"


  • Theories of Motivation
    • Describe Drive Reduction Theory
      • Differentiate between primary and secondary drives 

  • behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce or eliminate an uncomfortable or undesirable internal state
  • Primary Drives
    • involve physiological needs for survival

    • (e.g. food, water, and sex)

  • Secondary Drives
    • take on their motivating force because they have been associated with and/or provide access to primary drives 

    • (e.g. money, social status, and fame). 


  • Cognitive changes in late adulthood
    • age-related physical changes

  • the brain literally shrinks in size, AND 
  • neural plasticity changes 
    • loss of neurons 
      • the frontal lobe and corpus callosum lose neurons at the fastest rate; the cerebellum eventually loses about 25% of its neurons 


  • Theories of Intelligence
    • Who 4 people whose theories we should know?

  • Garner
  • Galton
  • Spearman
  • Binet


  • Theories of Attitude and Behavior Change
    • Elaboration-Likelihood Model of Attitude change
      • Define, and differentiate b/t central & peripheral route processing (including pros & cons)

  • is a theory to explain how attitudes are formed and changed and is often discussed in the context of persuading someone to change their attitudes about a given situation.

  • This particular model describes two different routes by which someone can be persuaded:

    • Central Route processing

      • involves thoughtful consideration of information that is being presented.

      • While the central route is more likely to result in lasting change in attitude, the person who is being persuaded must have an open-mind about the relevant issues and be interested enough to really think about the information that is being presented.

    • Peripheral Route processing 

      • can be used when the person who is being persuaded has very little interest in the topic at hand.

      • Here, the person is more affected by their early impressions of the person that is trying to persuade them and their own moods.
      • The peripheral route can result in attitude change, but generally, such changes are much shorter-lived than those accomplished via the central route. 


  • Stress
    • What is a "Stressor?" 
      • 3 parts to it

  • an external event, condition, or stimulus that leads to stress 


  • Consciousness
    • Drug Altered States
      • Describe what the following things do:
        • barbiturates/benzodiazepines
        • opiates/opioids 

  • barbiturates/benzodiazepines
    • Alcohol is considered a depressant drug because of its ability to agonize GABA neurotransmission (a feature it shares with both the barbiturates and benzodiazepenes)
  • Opiates
    •  Opiates have pronounced analgesic (pain-killing) properties and act on the opioid system in the brain.
    • Users report feelings of euphoria when administering these drugs intravenously or via smoking.
    • These drugs also affect motility of smooth muscle, regulation of temperature, heart rate, and respiration. 


  • Jean Piaget's 4 Stages of CD

    • Describe Concrete Operational

      • At what age range does it occur?

  • Concepts attached to concrete situations
  • Time, space, and quantity are understood and CAN be applied, but NOT as independent concepts 

Age Range: 7-11 years 


  • Consciousness

    • Alertness

      • Describe the Neural Pathway

        • what happens with a loss of function?

  • The reticular formation of the brain stem stimulates the prefrontal cortex to maintain alertness
  • Loss of function=COMA!


  • Stanford-Binet IQ Test
    • IQ correlations
      • what is IQ (+) correlated with? (4)
      • (-) correlated?
      • What 2 things influence intelligence?

  • (+) correlated with:
  1. High level of parental expectation
  2. Higher socioeconomic status
  3. Early educational intervention
  4. Adequate nutrition 
  • (-) correlated with the opposite ^^
  • Intelligence is influence by genetic (NATURE) and environmental factors (NURTURE)


  • Emotion
    • Name & describe the 3 components of emotion 

1. Subjective Emotion (aka Cognitive Response)

  • the subjective interpretation of the mood or feeling experienced by the individual

2. Physiological Response

  • physiological changes in heart rate, breathing, and skin temperature oserved in the person experiencing the emotion 

3. Behavioral Response

  • facial expressions or body language that accompany the expression of emotion





  • Name & Describe the 2 theories of Motivation

  • Instinct Theory
    • basically assert that behavior is motivated by instincts which are hardwired as a function of evolution.
    • There are very few, if any, examples of instinctive behaviors among humans.
    • But an example of instinct motivating behavior in a nonhuman animal would be seasonal migrations seen in a number of birds, insects, and fish. 
  • Arousal Theory
    • Behavior is motivated by a desire to maintain an optimal level of physiological arousal
    • That optimal level changes from person to person 
    • People seek new interests, action, or stimuli when arousal is LOW to increase arousal (and vice versa with when arousal is high) 


  • The link between Behavior & Attitude
    • Cognitive Dissonance Theory
      • Research indicates that...?


  • Variation in Intellectual ability 
    • Intelligence follows a ____ Distribution

  • Normal, or "Gaussian" Distribution 


  • The Self
    • name the 8 parts to "The Self" 

  1. Self-Esteem
  2. Self-Image
  3. Self-Identity
  4. Identity
  5. Self-Schemas
  6. Self-Efficacy
  7. Self-Concept
  8. Locus of Control


Limbic System

  • Name the 8 components of the Limbic System 
  • "All The Happy Hippos Can Fornicate So Clumsily"

  1. Amygdala (IMPLICIT emotional memory)
  2. Thalamus
  3. Hypothalamus
  4. Hippocampus (EXPLICIT emotional memory) 
  5. Corpus Callosum
  6. Fornix
  7. Septal Nuclei
  8. Cingulate Gyrus 


  • Stress
    • What are some effects of stress on psychological functions

  • Stress & psychological problems are correlated
  • You can think up some examples...
    • Like being in war can lead to PTSD


  • Stress
    • What is "Appraisal?"
      • Define primary and secondary appraisal

  • is how an individual consciously appraises a potentially stressful situation
    • Primary Appraisal
      • initial evaluation of the potential threat
      • We judge threat to be either:
        • irrelevant (unimportant)
        • benign-positive (good), or 
        • stressful (bad)
    • Secondary Appraisal
      • If the threat is determined to be stressful (bad), individual next judges whether he has resources to cope with the stress


  • Emotion
    • Describe the James-Lange Theory of Emotion 

  • states that emotions arise from physiological arousal.
  • In other words, we only experience fear because of the activation of the sympathetic nervous system upon encountering a threatening stimulus.
  • Theory is only partially true


  • Approaches to Problem Solving

    • Descriube Intuition 

      • what is it often based on? 

        • what does this make it an example of?

  • one's "gut feeling"
  • often based on previous experience, which case it is an example of unconsciously applying a heuristic, or mental set


  • Consciousness

    • Define Alertness

  • state of consciousness in which a person is awake, responsive, and capable of processing information


  • Jean Piaget's 4 Stages of CD
    • Describe Sensorimotor
      • at what age range does it occur?

  • coordination of senses with motor response
  • sensory curiosity about the world
  • language used for demands and cataloguing
  • object permanence developed

Age Range: 0-2 years


  • Name the Approaches to Problem Solving or Decision-Making (7)

  1. Trial & Error
  2. Algorithms
  3. Heuristics
  4. Intuition
  5. Deductive Reasoning
  6. Inductive Reasoning 


  • The Self
    • Self-Esteem
      • "Ought Self"

  • The ought self is a representation of characteristics that we (or others) think we ought to possess. 


  • The link between Attitude & Behavior

    • How does behavior influence attitude?


  • Stanford-Binet IQ Test
    • Describe it. What does it test?
      • What is the mean IQ and the standard deviation? 
      • what is the formula for IQ?
      • What does IQ stand for? 
      • Is your IQ unchangeable? 

  • Tests linguistic intelligence and logical-mathematical ability (the last 2 parts of Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence)
  • Mean=100
  • Standard Dev=15
  • IQ=mental age/chronological age x 100
  • IQ="Intelligence Quotient"
  • Only tests certain types of intellect--NOT fixed and unchangeable 


  • Consciousness
    • Dreaming
      • Problem-Solving Theory

  • Dreams are a way for the mind to solve problems encountered while awake.
  • Some proponents suggest the unconscious dreaming mind is better suited or more capable of solving problems than the awake mind—unrestricted by reality or more sensitive to subtle clues


  • The Self
    • Self-Concept
      • describe
        • what 3 thinks make it up?
      • how does it differ from other selfs?
      • what questions does it answer?
      • Think: ?

  • A collection of beliefs and self-perceptions about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior. 
  • 3 components:
    • self-image
    • self-esteem
    • ideal self
  • Differs from other selfs because it is a collective mental picture of oneself
  • Answers:
    • "Who am I?"
    • "What is my nature?"
    • "How do I behave?"


  • Consciousness
    • Sleep
      • Sleep-Wake Disorders
        • Dissomnia
          • Describe Narcolepsy
            • symptoms
              • What is "cataplexy?" 

  • chronic neurological disorder
    • autoimmune attack of neurons that release hypocretin, a hormone that normally regulates sleep-wake cycles 
  • Symptoms:
    • cataplexy
      • sudden, transient periods of muscle weakness or paralysis during which patient remains fully conscious and aware
    • inappropriate daytime sleeping
  • Patients experience daytime sleepiness similar to normal adults after 24-48 hrs of sleep deprivation 
  • During narcolepsy episodes, pts enter REM sleep after 5 minutes or less
    • normal REM reached after 90-120 minutes 


  • Language
    • Brain regions that control language and speech (3). List & describe 

  1. Broca's Area
    • motor aspects of speech (moving mouth & tongue)
  2. Wernicke's Area
    • Language comprehension
  3. Primary Auditory Cortex 


  • Attitude
    • Define Functional Attitudes Theory
      • name & describe the 3 functions



  • Brain regions involved in the experience of emotion
    • Describe the Limbic System
      • Apart from it, what other part of the brain is involved? Describe its 2 parts
      • When you see "Limbic System," think:

  • is the region of the brani most directly tied to emotion
    • the ventral prefrontal cortex is also involved
      • research suggests LEFT prefrontal cortex processes positive emotions
      • RIGHT pfc processes negative emotions
  • When you see "Limbic System," think:  EMOTION AND MOTIVATION  


  • Language
    • Define Semantics

  • Semantics deal with the meaning of language and involve issues about how meaning is changed as a function of the relationship among the words that are used


  • Information Processing Theory
    • Describe Situational Modification

  • Stored decision-making and problem-solving experiences from the past can be extrapolated to solve NEW problems 


  • Consciousness
    • Dreaming
      • Information Processing Theory

  • Memories and information accumulated during the day are consolidated during sleep.
  • Dreaming is the cerebral cortex associating images or meaning with this consolidation process.


  • Theories of Motivation
    • Define Cognitive Theory
      • differentiate b/t intrinsic & extrinsic sources of motivation

  • Behavior is motivated by thinking, including plans, goals, expectations, perceptions, & attributions
  • Intrinsic
    • purpose or drive to act based on personal, internal, often unseen motives
  • Extrinsic
    • purpose to drive to act based on external REWARDS or STIMULI


  • Consciousness
    • Dreaming
      • Activation-Synthesis Theory

  •  The limbic system is randomly active during sleep, mimicking incoming stimuli.
  • Dreams are an attempt by the cerebral cortex to synthesize and interpret this activity in a logical way.


  • Information Processing Theory
    • Describe Analysis of Stimuli

  • As part of decision-making, stimuli are altered and analyzed by the brain, not just responded to automatically 


  • Cognitive changes in late adulthood
    • age-related memory changes
      • Describe changes to:
        • overall memory
        • procedural memory
        • working memory
        • semantic memory

  • Overall
    • declines
  • Procedural
    • stable 
  • Working
    • Freaking NOSEDIVES
  • Semantic
    • STABLE


  • Theories of Motivation
    • Incentive Theory

  • behavior is motivated by a desire to OBTAIN REWARDS or to AVOID PUNISHMENTS


  • Barriers to Effective Problem Solving
    • Mental Set
      • describe it, & what can it lead to?

  • predetermined mental framework for approaching problem
  • a tendency to rely on approaches and solutions that have worked in the past
  • mental sets can lead to rigid thinking and a lack of cognitive flexibility 


  • Consciousness
    • Sleep
      • Describe Rapid-Eye Mvmt (REM)

  • in an intervallic period of sleep
  • denoted by rapid or random eye mvmts and a heightened sense of alertness that is greater than all other sleep stages
  • Occurs b/t other stages of sleep
    • several periods of REM per night
  • First REM periods are shorter and longest REM cycle occurs in AM right before waking up 


  • The Self
    • Identity
      • what makes it differ from other Selfs?
      • What questions does it answer?
      • Think: ?

  • Those descriptive characteristics, qualities, and abilities that make a person unique or different relative to others
    • especially in relation, or within, social contexts
  • Identity=Self-Identity (Happy-Go-Lucky drummer)+Group Identities (race, nationality, etc.)
  • Different from other "self-terms" because it is how i am defined by MYSELF, by OTHERS, AND in various situations
  • Answers:
    • "Who am I?"
    • "Who am I in various social roles or settings?"


  • Define "Attitude"
    • is it possible for someone to be UNclear about their attitude?

  • "A tendency to evaluate things in a certain way"
    • Yes--you can have Mixed Feelings about something/someone


  • Factors that affect attitude change
    • Characteristics model
      • Target

  • is the person receiving/processing the message
  • Higher intelligence=
    • less likely to be persuaded by shallow or one-sided messages
    •  more likely to respond to reason and logic
  • Moderate self-esteem
    • most likely to be persuaded 
  • High/Low self-esteem
    • less likely to be persuaded 
  • MOOD and MIND FRAME of the target alters the likelihood of persuading them


  • Language
    • Define Morphomemes and Morphology

  • Morphomemes (the smallest units of language that carry meaning) can be used by combing one or more phonemes together
  • morphology involves focusing on how words are formed from combinations of morphemes


  • The link between Attitude & Behavior

    • Behavior influences Attitude

      • Describe the "Foot-in-the-door" Phenomenon

  • People are more likely to agree to a LARGER or more difficult request if they first agree to a SMALLER request
    • In this case, behavior of the person MAKING THE REQUEST changes the attitude of the person being asked 


  • Response to stressors
    • Describe the General Adaptaion Syndrome and its 3 phases

1.) Alarm Stage

  • increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system

    • dilated pupils,

    • increased heart rate,

    • increased blood pressure,

    • decreased blood flow to the digestive organs,

    • increased glucose production, and

    • decreased peristalsis

  • would all be more likely to occur during this stage. 

2.) Resistance Stage

3.) Exhaustion Stage 


  • Stress
    • Response to stressors (aka stress outcomes)
      • Describe the Physiological response
        • what's the body's initial response to stress?
        • What about for chronic stress?

  • Initial response=stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system


  • Describe "Base Rate Fallacy"
    • give an example

  • Base rate fallacies occur when representativeness heuristics are used in error.

  • In these situations, individuals fail to take into account general information when dealing with specific cases. 

  • Ex: 


  • Motivation
    • What portion of the brain is primarily responsible for arousal?

  • The reticular activating system 


  • Theories of Attitude & Behavior Change 
    • what are 2 examples of attitudes being changed through behavior?
    • List the 4 formal theories of attitude change


  • Approaches to Problem Solving

    • Deductive Reasoning, aka?

  • aka TOP-DOWN reasoning


  • Consciousness
    • Dreaming
      • Name the 5 theories on dreaming

  1. Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)
  2. Cognitive Theory (Hall)
  3. Information Processing Theory
  4. Problem-Solving Theory
  5. Activation-Synthesis Theory


  • Theories of Intelligence
    • Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
      • List the 8 types
        • which 2 does Western culture favor?

  1. Visual-Spatial
  2. Bodily-Kinesthetic
  3. Musical
  4. Interpersonal
  5. Intrapersonal
  6. Naturalistic
  7. Linguistic
  8. Logical-Mathematical 

Last 2 favored by western culture 


  • Identity Formation
    • Theories of Development
      • Moral Development (main theory=?)

  • Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development


  • Identity formation
    • Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
      • List & describe the 3 Stages
        • what stage of life do they occur at?

  • Preconventional Morality (pre-adolescence)
    • obedience 
    • self-interest
  • Conventional Morality (adolescence to adulthood)
    • conformity
    • law & Order
  • Postconventional Morality (adulthood, if achieved)
    • Social contact
    • Universal Human Ethics 


Identity Formation

  • Social Development (main theory=?) 

    • name the 8 stages 


Erickson's Theory of Psychosocial Development 

  • Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
  • Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Industry vs. Inferiority
  • Identity vs. Role confusion
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Generativity vs. Stagnation 
  • Integrity vs. Despair 



Identity Formation

  • Erickson's Theory
    • What AGE RANGES are associated with each stage?
      • Who are the PEOPLE you know that you associate with each stage?

  • Birth to 1
    • Any baby you know
  • 1 to 3
    • Autumn Hawkins

  • 3 to 6
    • idk...
  • 6 to 12
    • Caden 
  • 12 to 19
    • Kiana
  • 20 to 25
    • Myself
  • 26-64
    • Dad
  • 65 to Death
    • Grandpa Thomas


Identity Formation

  • Erickson's Theory
    • For each stage, what is the favorable outcome of a positive resolution to conflict? 


Identity Formation 

  • Erickson's Theory
    • For each stage, what is the negative outcome of a failure to resolve the conflict? 


Identity Formation

  • Psychosexual Development 
    • list the 5 stages of it

Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development

  1. Oral
  2. Anal
  3. Phallic
  4. Latency
  5. Genital


Identity Formation

  • Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development
    • Where the libido is "located" during the first 4 out of 5 stages? 

Oral Stage 

the libido is centered in a baby's MOUTH

Anal Stage

The libido now becomes focused on the ANUS

  • the child derives great pleasure from defecating

Phallic Stage

Sensitivity (libido) now becomes

concentrated in the GENITALS

  • masturbation (in both sexes) becomes a new source of pleasure.

Latent ("hidden") Stage 

  • NO further psychosexual development takes place during this stage

The libido is DORMANT

  • Much of the child's energies are channeled into developing new skills

Genital Stage (puberty to adult)

  •  Sexual instinct is directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self pleasure like during the phallic stage. 

    • outlet=heterosexual intercourse 


Identity Formation

  • Social Identity
    • How does this differ from "Identity" with regards to "The Self?" 

  • a person's sense of who they are based on the groups to which they belong
  • "Identity" includes social identity, but is not exclusively one's group-based identity
    • Identity by itself defines what makes a person unique relative to others
    • Social Identity is that portion of our self-identity derived specifically from GROUP MEMBERSHIP



Identity Formation

  • Social Identity 
    • Social Identity Theory

  • suggest that individuals derive significant PRIDE and SELF-ESTEEM from their group memberships
    • as a result, indivs always strive to INCREASE the status of the group to which THEY belong (in-groups)
    • as well as DISCRIMINATE and hold prejudices against other groups to which they do NOT belong (out-groups) 


Influence of Social Factors on Identity Formation

  • Influence of Individuals on Identity Formation
    • Describe "Imitation"

Especially in CHILDREN, 

modeling and imitation of others

influences identity formation 


Influence of Social Factors on Identity Formation

  • Influence of Individuals on Identity Formation
    • Describe Role-Taking

Adopting and acting out a particular social role

  • This could be like kids playing "cops and robbers" 
  • or could be more complex role taking that helps adults feel empathy
    • "put yourself in his/her shoes"


Influence of Social Factors on Identity Formation

  • Influence of Individuals on Identity Formation
    • Describe the Looking-Glass Self

Theory that suggests that a person's self-concept is largely determined by

how they believe OTHERS see them! 


From this perspective, self IS NOT a function of who we are----but what OTHERS think we are 


Influence of Social Factors on Identity Formation

  • Influence of Groups on Identity Formation

    • What role does Group Membership play?

One's identity is tightly associated with GROUPS to which one belongs


Religion, Nationality, & Ethnicity all directly favor the creation of an identity that matches other members of one's group 


Influence of Social Factors on Identity Formation

  • Influece of Groups on Identity Formation

    • What role does Culture & Socialization play? 

the expectations of one's culture,

along with the socialization processes to which

one is subject, provide a strong driving force

during identity formation 

  • Certain Identities may be encouraged or discouraged by different cultures


Influence of Social Factors on Identity Formation

  • Influence of Groups on Identity Formation

    • ​What is a "Reference Group?"

  • Any group to which a person compares him/herself


What is a "Meta-Analysis" study design?

HINT: Meta= "after", or "beyond"

combines results from multiple studies 

(NOT from multiple experiments) 


Goes BEYOND the original study


  • During the 4 stages of sleep (and accompanying REM cycles), what does a Hypnogram look like throughout the night?


  • Throughout the night, what do the 4 stages of sleep look like (graphically) with regards to different types of brain waves? 


What does the Limbic System look like? 

(where in different parts of the brain are the different areas)