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Flashcards in Psychology Deck (173):
1

Steps in psychological research

Identify research topic
Formulate hypothesis
Design research
Collect data
Analyse data
Interpret results
Report findings

2

Sample

Subsection or smaller group of research participants from a larger group

3

Population

Entire group of research interest
Sample is chosen from it
Findings are generalised to it

4

Hypothesis

Testable prediction of the relationship between two or more variables

5

Independent variable

Manipulated in order to measure its effects of the dependant variable

6

Dependant variable

Used to observe and measure the effects of IV
Change depends on IV

7

Extraneous variable

Any variable other than IV that can impact DV and impact results

8

Experimental group

Exposed to independent variable

9

Control group

Not exposed to independent variable

10

Sampling

Selecting participants from a population of interest

11

Representative sample

Sample accurately represents the population it was chosen from

12

Random sampling

Every member of target population has equal chance of selection

13

Stratified sampling

Sample chosen to reflect demographic of population

14

Random stratified sampling

Participants placed into strata (subgroups reflecting population) then randomly chosen

15

Convenience Sampling

Recruits participants from people who are closest or readily accessible

16

Independent group research design

Each participants randomly allocated to either control or experimental group

17

Repeated measures study design

Each participants is in both the control and experimental group

18

Matched participant research design

Each participant matches to another participant in the other group based on similarities

19

Counterbalancing

Participants are separated, exposed to variable, then swap into other group

20

Single blind

Participants unaware of which group they are in

21

Double blind

Experimenter and participants don't know what group they are in

22

Primary data

Collected directly by the researcher for their own purpose and to test a hypothesis

23

Secondary data

Data collected by someone else other than user, not the first time it is being used

24

Quantitative data

Numerical information

25

Qualitative data

Descriptions of characteristics

26

Descriptive statistics

Used for analysis, organising, summarising
Graphs, percentages, means

27

Inferential statistics

Logical assumptions, judgements or conclusions based on available evidence

28

Ethics

Standards that guide individuals to identify good, desirable, or acceptable conduct

29

Australian Psychological Society

Provides standards and gud lines for all psychological research

30

Role or experimenter

Protection of participants information
Confidentiality
Withdrawal rights
Debriefing

31

Brain v Heart

Which area is responsible for thoughts, feelings and behaviours

32

Mind body problem

Whether our mind and body are distinct and seperate entities or one and the same thing

33

Descartes view on mind body problem

Mind is non physical and body is physical
Pineal gland is where the two meet
Body can effect mind and mind can effect body

34

Phrenology

Relationship between skulls surface features and a person's personality and behaviour
Proposed by Franz Gall

35

Electrical brain stimulation

Small electric fine wire inserted into a certain area of the brain
Assumes that a particular body part will react to brain stim
May not stim but rather interfere with the functioning of that area

36

Neuroimaging

Technique that captures a picture of the brain

37

Structural v Functional Neuroimgaing

Structural: anatomy of the brain
Functional: brain at work

38

Computerised tomography

Produces a horizontal cross section of the brain

39

Magnetic resonance imaging

Atoms vibrated at brain providing more detail and colour

40

Positron emission tomography

Colours images of structure and activity of the brain through a glucose solution

41

Functional MRI

Records brain activity by measuring oxygen consumption

42

Function of the nervous system

Receive information
Process information
Respond

43

Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord
Transmits and receives messages to and from the PNS

44

Peripheral nervous system

All other nerves
Somatic NS: sensory receptors and motor messages
Autonomic NS: sympathetic, parasympathetic

45

Neuron

Individual nerve cell

46

Dendrites

Receives information from other Neurons and transmits it to the soma

47

Soma

Combines neural information from many dendrites and sends it to the axon

48

Axon

Transmits neural information away from soma and towards other Neurons

49

Myelin sheath

White fatty coating that insulates the axon
Speeds up message and prevents interference from other Neurons

50

Axon terminals

Transfers messages to other Neurons

51

Sensory neuron

Afferent
Receive and carry sensory information

52

Motor neuron

Efferent
Carry messages from CNS to cells to stimulate activity

53

Interneuron

Connects sensory Neurons and motor Neurons in reflex arc

54

Cerebrum

Cognitive processes such as learning, thinking, memory

55

Corpus Callosum

Bridge of nerve fibres that connect the two hemispheres

56

Thalamus

Receives information from sensory organs and pass it onto relevant parts of the brain

57

Hypothalamus

Regulates body's internal environment

58

Reticular formation

Regulates alertness and modifies muscle movement

59

Pons

Regulates sleep, arousal and some muscle movement

60

Medulla

Controls vital survival functions such as heart rate and breathing

61

Cerebellum

Coordinates movement
regulates posture and balance
Learning, memory and other cognitive processes

62

Cerebral hemispheres

Two almost identical brain areas that are joined by the corpus Callosum

63

Hemispheric specialisation

Idea that one hemisphere has specialised function or extent over a specific function

64

Left hemisphere

Receives and controls right side of the body
Verbal tasks, analysis, logical reasoning

65

Right hemisphere

Controls and receives left side of the body
Creativity, fantasy, spatial and visual thinking

66

Frontal lobe

Primary motor cortex
Prefrontal cortex
Broca's area

67

Primary motor cortex

Initiates and controls voluntary movement through control of skeletal muscles

68

Prefrontal cortex

Sophisticated mental abilities, attention, regulation and expression of emotions

69

Broca's area

Coordinates the muscles required for speech
Only left hemisphere

70

Parietal lobe

Primary somatosensory cortex
Association areas

71

Primary somatosensory cortex

Receives and processes sensory information from the body

72

Association areas

Attention, spatial reasoning and judging the body's position in space

73

Occipital lobe

Primary visual cortex

74

Primary visual cortex

Major designation of visual information from both eyes

75

Temporal lobe

Primary auditory cortex
Wernickes area

76

Primary auditory cortex

Receives and processes sound enabling perception and identification of sounds

77

Wernickes area

Interpreting the sound of human speech
Only left hemisphere

78

Brain at birth

Contains all neurons it will ever have
1/4 size of adult brain

79

Myelination

Development of white fatty coating around axons
Increases brain size and is most intense after birth
Increases efficiency of neuron communication
Occurs in hindbrain, then midbrain, then forebrain

80

Synaptogeneosis

Formation of new synapses (place where Neurons connect and communicate)
First in sensory areas and then association areas
Synapses begun firming before birth to prepare for new stimuli

81

Synaptic pruning

Brain eliminates weak or unused synapse connections
First in sensory then association
'Use it or lose it', if not valued or used, it gets pruned

82

Overall development of brain

Bottom to top, back to front
Prefrontal cortex develops last and adolescents are known for impulsive and unpredictable activity

83

Brain injury

Any damage that interferes or impairs with the normal functioning of the brain

84

Acquired injury

After birth (stroke, alcohol, head injury)

85

Sudden onset

Quick as a result of a blow or infection

86

Insidious onset

Overtime due to prolonged alcohol or drug use

87

Neurodegenerative disease

Progressive decline in the structure, activity and functioning of brain tissue

88

Biological changes in frontal lobe injury

Primarily physical in nature, visible signs through facial expression and movement

89

Psychological changes of frontal lobe injury

Emotion, personality, and cognition
Lack of concern and lack of response to pain

90

Social changes in frontal lobe injury

Personality changes and behaviour
Highly represented in criminal justice system
Can lead to relationship break downs

91

Spatial neglect

Neurological disorder where individuals are unable to notice anything either on their left or right side
Cause of injury to parietal lobe of right hemisphere

92

Plasticity

Brains ability to change in response to experience
Brain doesn't change shape, formation of new neural pathways, links and interconnections

93

Adaptive plasticity

Ability of brain to compensate for lost function or maximise remaining function in the event of a brain injury

94

Rerouting

Undamaged neuron that has lost connection with an active neuron may seek a new active neuron

95

Sprouting

Growth of additional branches in axons or dendrites to enable new connections

96

Parkinson's disease

Progressive neurological disorder resulting from progressive degeneration of Neurons in substantia Nigra

97

Substantia Nigra

Regulates and controls smooth movement

98

Neurons in substantia Nigra

Produce dopamine which carries messages between Neurons for planning, initiating and maintaining movements

99

Less dopamine

Less and irregular messages on how to control bodily movements

100

Idiopathic

No known cause

101

Symptoms of Parkinson's

Tremors
Muscle rigidity
Slowness of movement
Posture inability, balance and walking problems

102

Who is Arvid Carrison

Discovered levodopa
Deceased dopamine levels in rabbits to find it controlled voluntary movement
Injected them with levodopa which is a chemical that is converted to dopamine by Neurons and found symptoms were relieved

103

Deep brain stimulation Parkinson's

Developed after studied with rats and monkeys
Surgically implanted neurotransmitters to deliver electric stimulation to target brain area
Electrical impulses from transmitter block abnormal nerve signals that caused Parkinson's symptoms

104

Physical development

Changes in the body and its various systems
(Brain, nervous system, hormones)

105

Social development

Changes in an individual's relationships with other people and interaction skills

106

Cognitive development

Changes in an individual's mental abilities

107

Emotional development

Changes in experiencing different feelings and how they are expressed

108

Psychological development

Emotional, social, cognitive
Can't be seen

109

Hereditary

Nature
Transmission of characteristics from biological parents to offspring at time of conception via genes

110

Environment

Nurture
All experiences, objects and events we are exposed to throughout our lives

111

Nature v nurture

Whether hereditary or environmental factors make us who we are or a combination of both

112

Maturation

Orderly and sequential development that occurs in the nervous system and other bodily functions
All individuals follow same pattern unless significant interference
(Crawling before walking)

113

Principle of readiness

Unless necessary bodily structures and processes are sufficiently mature, then no amount of practice will produce particular mental processes/behaviours

114

Sensitive periods

Individual is more responsive to certain environmental experiences or learning
Optimal time for relevant learning to occur
Can be learnt outside at slower, more difficulty, less success

115

Critical period

Individual is most vulnerable to deprivation of certain environmental stimuli
Has an identifiable start and end

116

Imprinting

Type of critical period
Newborn ducklings imprint and follow first moving and noisy object

117

Twin studies

Research using identical and non identical twins to test personality and intelligence

118

Monozygotic twin

1 egg, 1 sperm
Egg splits into two
100% same genes

119

Dizygotic twins

2 eggs 2 sperm
50% same genes

120

Adoption studies

Examine similarities and differences between adopted children and their biological and adopted parents
Show influence or nature and nurture

121

Attachment

Emotional bond which forms between an infant and another person

122

Strange situation

Measures the attachment a child has with their parent
Consists of a room, infant, parent and stranger

123

Secure attachment

Balance between independence and exploration
Happy to explore when caregiver is near but decreases when they leave
Search for contact upon caregiver return

124

Insecure avoidant attachment

Doesn't seek closeness with caregiver
Treats them like a stranger
Doesn't cry when they leave and ignores their return

125

Insecure resistant

Anxious when caregiver is near, upset when separated
Wants to be picked up but squirms to get free

126

Paigets 4 stages of development

Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete operational
Formal operational

127

Sensorimotor stage

0-2 years
Construct understanding of world by coordinating sensory and motor abilities

128

Accomplishments of sensorimotor

Goal directed behaviour: everything is done with a particular purpose in mind
Object permanence: objects still exist if they can't be seen or touched

129

Preoperational stage

2-7 years
Children are egocentric and can't see things from others POV
Believe everything has a consciousness (animism)

130

Accomplishments of Preoperational

Decentred thought: think about situations from multiple perspectives
Centration: focus on one feature of an object at a time
Reversibility: follow a line of reasoning back to starting point

131

Concrete operational

7-12 years
Can perform mental abilities with concrete ideas, not abstract
Thinking revolves around what they can experience through senses

132

Accomplishments of concrete operational

Conservation: object doesn't change mass or weight when shape changes
Classification: organising information into categories based on common features

133

Formal operational

12+
Thought is more complex and sophisticated

134

Accomplishments of formal operational

Abstract thinking: visualise concepts for greater understanding
Logical thought: solve problems and identify range of solutions

135

Early infancy

0-18 months
Trust v mistrust

136

Late infancy

18-3years
Autonomy vs shame and doubt

137

Early childhood

3-5
Initiative v guilt

138

Middle and late childhood

5-12
Industry v inferiority

139

Adolescence

12-18
Identity v role confusion

140

Young adulthood

18-25
Intimacy v isolation

141

Adulthood

25-65
Generativity v stagnation

142

Late adulthood

65+
Integrity v despair

143

Sociocultural approach to normality

What is acceptable in one culture may not be accepted in another

144

Functional

Being able to live independently is normal, not being able to is abnormal

145

Historical

What is considered normal may depend on the time period or era

146

Medical

Abnormalities have an underlying biological cause

147

Statistical

If most people think or act in a certain way, it is normal

148

Situational

Normal in one situation, abnormal in another

149

Adaptive behaviour

Enable a person to effectively carry out their usual everyday tasks

150

Maladaptive behaviour

Interferes it's the ability to effectively carry out their usual everyday tasks

151

Mental health

State of wellbeing where an individual understands their abilities, is able to cope with normal stressors of life, can work productively and contribute to society

152

Mental health problem

Occurs as a result of a life stressor and is usually shorter and less severe than a mental disorder

153

Mental disorder

Thought,feelings,behaviours that impair the ability to function effectively in everyday life

154

Mental health continuum

Mental wellbeing
Mental health problem
Mental disorder

155

Biopsychosocial method

How biological, psychological and social factors combine and interact to influence a person's mental health
Biological: physiological influencers we have no control over
Social: interaction skills
Psychological: mental processes, beliefs and attitudes

156

Addiction disorder

Feel recurring urge to use a substance/activity despite possible consequences

157

Contributing factors to addiction

Dopamine reward system: reinforces addiction
Illusion of control: believe they are in control and not addiction
Social acceptability: if it seems okay to do it, frequency increases

158

Treatment of addiction disorder

Cognitive behavioural therapy
Support groups

159

Anxiety

Unpleasant feelings of apprehension and uneasiness that something is wrong or something bad is about to happen

160

Anxiety disorder

Persistent feelings of tensions, stress, nervousness of the future with a negative effect

161

Generalised anxiety disorder

Persistent, excessive or unrealistic anxiety and worry

162

Panic disorder

Recurring, unexpected panic attacks that tend to occur suddenly for no apparent reason

163

Specific phobia

Excessive, persistent, unrealistic fear of a specific object or situation

164

Social phobia

Excessive, persistent, unrealistic fear of social and performance situations

165

Agoraphobia

Excessive, persistent and unreasonable fear of a situation where something terrible may occur

166

Mood disorder

Disabling disturbance in emotional state from extreme sadness to extreme happiness

167

Mood

Overall feeling that colours our perception of the world and influences how we approach life

168

Depression

Lasting and continuous
Deeply sad or loss of pleasure

169

Mania

Elevated mood involving intense elation

170

Major depression

At least two weeks
Sad or miserable most of the time or loss pleasure in usual activity

171

Psychotic disorder

Group of disorders characterised by psychosis

172

Psychosis

Loss of contact with reality

173

Symptoms of psychotic disorder

Delusion: false belief held with absolute certainty despite factual evidence against it
Hallucinations: individual sees something that isn't present in reality
Disorganised speech and thought