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Flashcards in Psychology Deck (169):
1

Psychology is

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

2

Behavior is

Outward, overt action reaction

3

Mental processes are

Internal, covert action reaction

4

Wilhelm Wundt's psychology lab 2

1. German 1879
2. Developed technique of objective interception

5

Objective interception is

The process of objectivity examining and measuring ones thoughts and mental activities

6

Titchner and structuralism 2

1. Wundt's student
2. Brought structuralism to USA

7

Margaret Washburn 2

1. Titchners student
2. First women to earn PhD in psychology

8

Structuralism died out in the early

1900's

9

William James inventor of

Functionalism

10

Functionalism is

How the mind allows people to adapt to, live, work, and play

11

Werthhiemer studied

Sense perception

12

Cognitive psychology

Field focusing on any perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving.

13

Psychoanalysis

Theory and therapy based on the work of sigmund Freud

14

Freud beliefs 3

1. Proposed the existence of an unconscious mind into which we push or repress our threatening urges and desires
2. Believed that these repressed urges, in trying to surface, created nervous disorders
3. Stressed the importance of childhood experiences

15

Behaviorism 3

1. Focuses on observable behavior only
2. Must be directly seen and measured
3. Is based on Pavlov's work, who demonstrated that a reflex could be conditioned or learned

16

Proposed by john B. Watson

Behaviorism

17

Who believed that phobias were learned

John B. Watson

18

Mary cover Jones 4

1. Early pioneer in behavior therapy
2.psycho dynamic perspective
3. Modern psych
4. More on sense and self development

19

Who studied operant conditioning of voluntary behavior

BF skinner

20

What theory became a major force in the 20th century

Behaviorism

21

Humanistic perspective

1. Owes far more to the early roots of psychology in the field of philosophy
2. People have free will

22

Free will means

The freedom to choose their own destiny

23

Self actualization

Ones full potential or actual self

24

Early founders of humanistic perspective 2

1. Abraham Maslow
2. Carl rogers

25

Pattern of psychology 7

1. Structuralism
2. Functionalism
3. Psychoanalysis
4. Psycho dynamic
5. Behaviorism
6. Cognitive psyche
7. Humanistic perspective psyche

26

Focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning

Cognitive perspective

27

Focuses on relationship between social behavior and culture

Sociocultural

28

Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body such as genetic influences, hormones, and activity of nervous system.

Bio psychological perspective

29

Focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share and looks at how the mind works and why it works the way it does
Behavior seen as having an adaptive or survival value

Evolutionary perspective

30

Professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas

Psychologist

31

Medical Dr. who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders

Psychiatrist

32

Someone with training in therapy methods focuses on environment that have an impact on mental problems

Psychiatric social worker

33

Gathering data so bias and error are reduced in measure

Scientific approach

34

The goals of psychology 4

1. Description
2. Explanation
3. Prediction
4. Control

35

What is happening

Description

36

Why is it happening

Explanation

37

When will it happen

Prediction

38

How can it be changed

Control

39

Steps in scientific approach 5

1. Perceive the question
2. Form a hypothesis
3. Test hypothesis
4. Draw conclusion
5. Report results

40

A tentative explanation of a phenomenon

Hypothesis

41

Others must be able to study your experiment to see whether the same results will be obtained to demonstrate reliability of results to be a real

Scientific approach

42

Watching how animals or humans behave in their normal environment

Naturalistic observation

43

Advantage to naturalistic observation

Realistic picture of behavior

44

Disadvantage to naturalistic observation 3

1. Observer effect
2. Observer bias
3. Each naturalistic setting is unique, observation may not hold

45

Watching animals behave in a laboratory setting

Laboratory observation

46

Advantages to laboratory observation 2

1. Control over environment
2. Allows use of specialized equipment

47

Disadvantages to laboratory observation

Artificial situation may result in artificial behavior

48

Descriptive methods lead to testable hypothesis formation

T

49

Study of one individual in great detail

Case studies

50

Advantages to case studies

Tremendous amount of detail

51

Disadvantages to case studies

Cannot apply to others

52

Famous case study was phineas gage

Look up

53

Researchers ask a series of questions about the topic under study
Given to representation sample of population
Population: entire group of people or animal in which researcher is interested

Surveys

54

Advantages to surveys

Data from large number of people;study covert behaviors

55

Disadvantage to surveys

Must ensure representative sample of results not meaningful; courtesy bias

56

Measure of relationship between two variables

Correlation

57

Anything that can change or vary

Variables

58

Knowing value of one variable allows researchers to predict the value of other variables

T

59

Measures of two variables go into a mathematical formula and produce a correlation coefficient which represents two things

1. Direction of the relationship
2. Strength of the relationship

60

1. Sample size longer/ better
2. Random assignment
3. Replicatible
4. Reliable and valid
5. Correlation does not mean causation
6. Variables ( independent, dependent)

Scientific studying needs

61

No harm
Deception, is it necessary

Ethics

62

Rule out things that will muddy results
Get rid of confounding variables
Questions must be specific

Critical thinking

63

Quantitative and qualitative paradime

T

64

Quantitative sample size

Large

65

Qualitative sample size

Small

66

Formation of new neurons, and an important process during nervous system development

Neurogenesis

67

Can become any cell in the body

Stem cells

68

The interaction between genes and environmental factors that influence gene activity

Epigenetic's

69

Peripheral nervous system( PNS) 2 divisions

1. Somatic nervous system
2. Automatic nervous system

70

Works with eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin, allows the brain and spinal cord to control muscles and glands

Peripheral nervous system

71

Involuntary muscles, organs and glands

Automatic NS

72

Nerve carrying messages from senses to central NS

Sensory pathway

73

Voluntary muscle control

Somatic NS

74

Somatic NS two pathways

1. Sensory pathway
2. Motor pathway

75

Nerves going to voluntary functions with messages

Motor pathway

76

Automatic NS two divisions

1. Sympathetic
2. Parasympathetic

77

The fight or flight response

Sympathetic devision

78

Eat, drink, and rest response

Parasympathetic division

79

Three basic types of neurons

1. Efferent
2. Afferent
3. Inter

80

Carry messages from the senses to the spinal cord

Afferent neurons

81

Carry messages from the spinal cord to the muscles and glands

Efferent neurons

82

Connect the efferent and afferent neurons

Interneurons

83

The ability to constantly change the structure and function f many cells in the brain in response to trauma

Neuroplascticity

84

Awareness

Consciousness

85

Thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized. Alertness.

Waking consciousness

86

A shift of quality compared to waking consciousness

Altered consciousness

87

Cycle of body rhythm occurs over 24 hr period

Circadian rhythm

88

Tiny section influences gland system

Hypothalamus

89

Tells people when to wake up

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

90

Tells pineal gland to secrete melatonin

Hypothalamus

91

Makes people sleepy

Melatonin

92

Brief sidesteps into sleep

Microsleeps

93

Any substantial loss of sleep

Sleep deprivation

94

Causes irritability and lack of concentration

Sleep deprivation

95

Theory's of why we sleep

Adaptive theory
Restorative

96

Animals/ humans patterns evolved to sleep at night because predators were out at night

Adaptive

97

Cells being repaired theory

Restorative

98

Eyes rapidly move underlid/ dream state

R.E.M.

99

Any sleep that does not involve R.E.M.

NREM

100

Detect brain waves

EEG

101

Brian waves from awake to deep sleep

Beta
Alpha
Theta
Delta

102

Beta

Awake

103

Alpha

Light sleep

104

Theta

Middle sleep

105

Delta

Deep sleep

106

3 stages of sleep

N1
N2
N3

107

Light sleep/ hallucination/ body jerks

N1

108

Sleep spindles brief bursts of activity only a sec or 2

N2

109

Pronounced delta waves/ lowest functioning level for body/ growth occurs

N3

110

Paradoxical sleep

R.E.M. Sleep

111

After losing R.E.M. Sleep more R.E.M. Sleep next night

T

112

Levels of consciousness

1. Consciousness
2. Waking consciousness
3. Altered state

113

Awareness

Consciousness

114

Thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, alertness

Waking C

115

A shift of quality compared to waking C

Altered C

116

Cycle of body rhythm occurs over 24 hr periods

Circadian Rhythm

117

Tiny section influences gland system

Hypothalamus

118

Tells people when to wake up

Suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus

119

Tells pineal gland to secrete melatonin

Hypothalamus

120

Makes people sleepy secreted by the pineal gland

Melatonin

121

Brief sidesteps into sleep

Micro sleeps

122

Any significant loss of sleep

Sleep deprivation

123

Causes irritability and loss of concentration

Sleep deprivation

124

Theories for sleep

1. Adaptive
2. Restorative

125

Animals/ humans slept at night to avoid predators that would hunt then

Adaptive theory

126

For cells in the body to repair themselves

Restorative

127

Eyes move rapidly under the lid dream state

REM

128

Any sleep that does not include REM

NREM

129

For seeing brain waves and brain activity in sleep or anytime

EEG

130

Brain Waves from awake to deep sleep

1. Beta
2. Alpha
3. Theta
4. Delta

131

Awake

Beta

132

Light sleep

Alpha

133

Middle sleep

Theta

134

Deep sleep

Delta

135

Three stages of N sleep

1. N1
2. N2
3. N3

136

Light sleep/ hallucination/ body jerks

N1

137

Sleep spindles- brief bursts of activity only a second or two

N2

138

Pronounced delta waves/ deepest sleep/ lowest functions state for the physical body/ growth occurs

N3

139

paradoxical which sleep REM or NREM

REM

140

If you lose REM sleep what will happen the next night

You will have more REM sleep

141

Levels of consciousness

1. Consciousness
2. Waking consciousness
3. Altered state

142

Awareness

Consciousness

143

Thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, alertness

Waking C

144

A shift of quality compared to waking C

Altered C

145

Cycle of body rhythm occurs over 24 hr periods

Circadian Rhythm

146

Tiny section influences gland system

Hypothalamus

147

Tells people when to wake up

Suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus

148

Tells pineal gland to secrete melatonin

Hypothalamus

149

Makes people sleepy secreted by the pineal gland

Melatonin

150

Brief sidesteps into sleep

Micro sleeps

151

Any significant loss of sleep

Sleep deprivation

152

Causes irritability and loss of concentration

Sleep deprivation

153

Theories for sleep

1. Adaptive
2. Restorative

154

Animals/ humans slept at night to avoid predators that would hunt then

Adaptive theory

155

For cells in the body to repair themselves

Restorative

156

Eyes move rapidly under the lid dream state

REM

157

Any sleep that does not include REM

NREM

158

For seeing brain waves and brain activity in sleep or anytime

EEG

159

Brain Waves from awake to deep sleep

1. Beta
2. Alpha
3. Theta
4. Delta

160

Awake

Beta

161

Light sleep

Alpha

162

Middle sleep

Theta

163

Deep sleep

Delta

164

Three stages of N sleep

1. N1
2. N2
3. N3

165

Light sleep/ hallucination/ body jerks

N1

166

Sleep spindles- brief bursts of activity only a second or two

N2

167

Pronounced delta waves/ deepest sleep/ lowest functions state for the physical body/ growth occurs

N3

168

paradoxical which sleep REM or NREM

REM

169

If you lose REM sleep what will happen the next night

You will have more REM sleep