Psychology & Sociology Terms & Definitions (TPR) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology & Sociology Terms & Definitions (TPR) Deck (70):
1

Absolute Poverty

The inability to meet a bare minimum of basic necessities, most notably, clean water, food, safe housing and reliable access to healthcare

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Absolute Poverty

The inability to meet a bare minimum of basic necessities, most notably, clean water, food, safe housing and reliable access to healthcare

3

Achieved Status

Those statuses that are considered to be due largely to an individuals efforts

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Acquisition
[Classical Conditioning]

The process of learning the association between a conditioned stimulus and response

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Acquisition
[Classical Conditioning]

The process of learning the association between a conditioned stimulus and response

6

Activation-Synthesis Theory

The theory that dreams are simply byproducts of brain activation during REM sleep; suggests that the contents of dreams is not purposeful or meaningful

7

Activation-Synthesis Theory

The theory that dreams are simply byproducts of brain activation during REM sleep; suggests that the contents of dreams is not purposeful or meaningful

8

Actor-Observer Bias

The tendency to blame our actions on the situation and blame the actions of others on their personalities

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Actor-Observer Bias

The tendency to blame our actions on the situation and blame the actions of others on their personalities

10

Addiction

A compulsion to do an act repeatedly; can consist of a psychological dependence and/or a physical dependence as evidenced by drug addiction withdrawal

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Addiction

A compulsion to do an act repeatedly; can consist of a psychological dependence and/or a physical dependence as evidenced by drug addiction withdrawal

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Affect

A person's visible emotion in the moment

13

Affirmative Action

Policies that take factors like race or sex into consideration to benefit underrepresented groups in admissions or job hiring decisions

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Aggregate

People who exist in the same space but do not interact or share a common sense of identity

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Aggregate

People who exist in the same space but do not interact or share a common sense of identity

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Aggression

Behavior that is forceful, hostile or attacking

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Ainsworth (Mary)

Strange Situation Experiments where mothers would leave their infants in an unfamiliar environment to see how they would react

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Algorithm

Step-by-step detailing of steps that aids with problem solving

19

Alpha Waves

Low amplitude, high frequency brain waves present in a relaxed state; indicators that a person is ready to drift off to sleep

20

Altruism

A behavior that helps ensure the success or survival of the rest of a social group, possibly at the expense of the success or survival of the individual

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Amalgamation

Occurs when majority and minority groups combine to form a new group

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Amalgamation

Occurs when majority and minority groups combine to form a new group

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Anal Stage
[Freud's Psychosexual]

The second stage in which the child seeks sensual pleasure through control of elimination

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Anterograde Amnesia

An inability to form new memories

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Antisocial Personality Disorder

Characterized by a history of serious behavior problems beginning in adolescence including significant aggression against people or animals, property destruction, lying or theft and serious rule violation

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Anxiety Disorder

An emotional state of unpleasant physical and mental arousal; a preparation to fight or flee; anxiety is intense, frequent, irrational and uncontrollable

27

Asch (Solomon)

Research on conformity and group pressure by placing subjects in a room with several confederates and observing the behavior of the subject when the confederates provided clearly wrong answers to questions

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Asch (Solomon)

Research on conformity and group pressure by placing subjects in a room with several confederates and observing the behavior of the subject when the confederates provided clearly wrong answers to questions

29

Ascribed Status

Those statuses that are assigned to a person by society regardless of the persons own efforts

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Assimilation

The process in which an individual forsakes aspects of his or her own cultural tradition to adopt those of a different culture; attempts to conform to the culture of the dominant group

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Assimilation

The process in which an individual forsakes aspects of his or her own cultural tradition to adopt those of a different culture; attempts to conform to the culture of the dominant group

32

Associative Learning

Process of learning in which one event, object, or action is directly connected with another; categories = classical and operant conditioning

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Associative Learning

Process of learning in which one event, object, or action is directly connected with another. Categories = classical and operant conditioning

34

Associative Learning

Process of learning in which one event, object, or action is directly connected with another. Categories = classical and operant conditioning

35

Attenuation Model of Selective Attention

The mind has an attenuator (like a volume knob) that can tune up inputs to be attended and tune down unattended inputs rather than totally eliminating them

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Attenuation Model of Selective Attention

The mind has an attenuator (like a volume knob) that can tune up inputs to be attended and tune down unattended inputs rather than totally eliminating them

37

Attitude

A person's feelings and beliefs about other people or events around him, and his behavioral reactions based on those underlying evaluations

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Attitude

A person's feelings and beliefs about other people or events around him, and his behavioral reactions based on those underlying evaluations

39

Attribution Theory

A person's feelings and beliefs about other people or events around them and their behavioral reactions based on those underlying evaluations

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Attribution Theory

A person's feelings and beliefs about other people or events around them and their behavioral reactions based on those underlying evaluations

41

Authoritarian Parenting

Parenting style in which parents impose strict rules that are expected to be followed unconditionally in an attempt to control children; this style is demanding and often relies on punishment

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Authoritarian Parenting

Parenting style in which parents impose strict rules that are expected to be followed unconditionally in an attempt to control children; this style is demanding and often relies on punishment

43

Availability Heuristic

Mental shortcut of making judgments on the frequency of something occurring based on how readily it is available in our memories

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Availability Heuristic

Mental shortcut of making judgments on the frequency of something occurring based on how readily it is available in our memories

45

Avoidance Learning

The process by which one learns to perform a behavior in order to ensure that a negative or aversive stimulus will not be present

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Avoidance Learning

The process by which one learns to perform a behavior in order to ensure that a negative or aversive stimulus will not be present

47

Avoidant Personality Disorder

A psychological disorder characterized by feelings of inadequacy, inferiority and undesirability, and a preoccupation with fears of criticism

48

Avoidant Personality Disorder

A psychological disorder characterized by feelings of inadequacy, inferiority and undesirability, and a preoccupation with fears of criticism

49

Babinski Reflex

In response to the sole of the foot being stroked, a baby's big toe moves upward or toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out

50

Babinski Reflex

In response to the sole of the foot being stroked, a baby's big toe moves upward or toward the top surface of the foot and the other toes fan out

51

Back Stage Self

In the dramaturgical perspective, where we can 'let down our guard' and be ourselves, as opposed to the 'front stage' where we are playing a role for others

52

Back Stage Self

In the dramaturgical perspective, where we can 'let down our guard' and be ourselves, as opposed to the 'front stage' where we are playing a role for others

53

Bandura (Albert)

Bobo doll studies that demonstrated observational learning; also pioneered the idea of the importance of self-efficacy in promoting learning

54

Behavioral Therapy

A type of therapy uses conditioning to shape a client's behaviors in the desired direction

55

Behaviorism
[Personality]

Personality is a result of learned behavior patterns based on a person's environment; it is deterministic proposing that people begin as blank slates and that environmental reinforcement and punishment completely determine an individual's subsequent behavior and personailities

56

Behaviorism
[Personality]

Personality is a result of learned behavior patterns based on a person's environment; it is deterministic proposing that people begin as blank slates and that environmental reinforcement and punishment completely determine an individual's subsequent behavior and personailities

57

Beliefs

The convictions or principles that people within a culture hold

58

Belief Bias

A tendency to draw conclusions based on what one already believes rather sound logic

59

Belief Perservance

The maintenance of beliefs even in the face of evidence to the contrary

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Belief Perservance

The maintenance of beliefs even in the face of evidence to the contrary

61

Bilateral Descent

A system of lineage in which the relatives on the mother's side and father's side are considered equally important

62

Biofeedback

Means of recording and feeding back information about subtle autonomic responses to an individual in an attempt to train the individual to control previously involuntary responses

63

Bipolar Disorder

A psychological disorder characterized by cyclic mood episodes at both extremes or poles, depression and mania

Bipolar I: a person has experienced at least one manic or mixed episode

Bipolar II: the manic phases are less extreme

64

Bipolar Disorder

A psychological disorder characterized by cyclic mood episodes at both extremes or poles, depression and mania

Bipolar I: a person has experienced at least one manic or mixed episode

Bipolar II: the manic phases are less extreme

65

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

A preoccupation with a slight physical anomaly or imagined defect in appearance, often involving the face, hair, breasts or genitalia

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Body Dysmorphic Disorder

A preoccupation with a slight physical anomaly or imagined defect in appearance, often involving the face, hair, breasts or genitalia

67

Borderline Personality Disorder

Enduring or recurrent instability in impulse control, mood and image of self and others; Impulsive and reckless behavior, together with extreme mood swings, reactivity and anger can lead to unstable relationships and damage to the person and individuals around them

68

Bottom-Up Processing

A type of sensory processing that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the complex integration of information occurring in the brain; the brain uses this in combination of this and top-down processing

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Bottom-Up Processing

A type of sensory processing that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the complex integration of information occurring in the brain; the brain uses this in combination of this and top-down processing

70

Bystander Effect

The fact that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other people around