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Flashcards in Psychology and Sociology Deck (54):
1

attended channel

information coming into the ear

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unattended

ignore input coming into the ear

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Broadbent Filter Model of Selective Attention

theorizes that inputs from the environment first enter a sensory buffer

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cocktail party effect

when you are not aware of the conversation around you until a certain word or name gets your attention and then you start understanding

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Anne Treisman's Attentuation Model

Treisman believed that rather than a filter, the mind has an attenuator, which works like a volume knob--it "turns down" the unattended sensory input, rather than eliminating it

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selective priming

people can be selectively primed to observe something, either by encountering it frequently or by having an expectaion

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divided attention

concerns when and if we are able to preform multiple tasks simultaneously

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resource model of attention

we have a limited pool of resources on which to draw when performing tasks, both modality-specific resources and general resources

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information-processing models

assume that information is taken in from the environment and processed through a series of steps including attention, perception, and storage into memory

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Baddeley's Model of Working Memory

sought to better define short-term memory

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working memory

short-term memory

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phonological loop

allows us to repeat verbal information to help us remember it

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visuospatial sketchpad

serves a similar purpose for visuospatial information through the use of mental images

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episodic buffer

where information in the working memory can interact with information in long-term memory

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schemas

mental frameworks that shape and are shaped by our experience

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assimilate

conforming them into our existing schemas

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accommodate

adjusting our schemas to take into account the new experiences

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sensorimotor stage

from birth to roughly age 2, demonstrate anxiety,distress when confronted with an unfamiliar person

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object permanence

understanding that things continue to exist when they are out of sight

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Preoperational stage

roughly from ages 2-7, learn things can be represented through symbols such as words and images, development of language, still lack logical reasoning, do not understand others have different perspectives

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concrete operational stage

roughly age 7-11, children learn to think logically about concrete events, grasp mathematical concepts during this time

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conservation

idea that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape

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formal operational stage

roughly age 12- adulthood, people learn abstract reasoning and moral reasoning

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algorithm

step-by-step procedure

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heuristics

mental shortcuts

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insight

sudden flash of inspiration

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confirmation bias

tendency to search only for information that confirms our preconceived thinking, rather than information that might not support it

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fixation

inability to see the problem from a fresh perspective

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mental set

tendency to fixate on solutions that worked in the past though they may not apply to the current situation

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functional fixedness

tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanging

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representativeness heuristic

is a tendency to judge the likelihoods of an event occurring based on our typical mental representations of those events

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availability heuristic

tendency to make judgements based on how readily available information is in our memories

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belief bias

tendency to judge arguments based on what one believes about their conclusions rather than on whether they use sound logic

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belief perseverance

tendency to cling to beliefs despite the presence of contrary evidence

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overconfidence

overestimation of the accuracy of knowledge and judgments

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consciousness

awareness that we have of ourselves, our internal states, and the environment

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polysomnography

multimodal technique to measure physiological processes during sleep

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alpha waves

low amplitudes and high frequencies

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Stage 1 sleep

sleep begins, the first stage of non-REM

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theta waves

low to moderate intensity and intermediate frequency

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Stage 2 sleep

denoted by a change to two distinct wave patterns on the EEG

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k-complex

typically has a duration of a half second and is large and slow

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sleep spindles

bursts of waves with frequency of 12-14 Hz and are moderately intense

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Stage 3 sleep

transition into slow wave sleep

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delta waves

high amplitude, low frequency waves and signify the deepest level of sleep

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REM sleep

final stage of sleep, characterized by bursts of quick eye movements

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paradoxical sleep

low (almost no) skeletal muscle movement

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dyssomnias

abnormalities in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep, and include insomnia, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea

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Insomnia

most common sleep disorder and is characterized by difficulty falling or staying asleep

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narcolepsy

experience periodic, overwhelming sleepiness during waking periods that usually last less than 5 minutes

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sleep apnea

disorder that causes people to intermittently stop breathing during sleep, which results in awakening after a minute or so without air

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parasomnias

abnormal behaviors that occur during sleep and include somnambulism and night terrors

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somnambulism

sleepwalking, tend to occur during slow wave sleep (stage3), usually during the first third of the night

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night terrors

person experiencing a night terror may sit up or walk around, babble, and appear terrified, although none of this is recalled the next morning