Psychology and sociology part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology and sociology part 2 Deck (30):
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Developed by carl rogers asserts that human are driven by an actualizing tendency to realize their own highest potential and personality conflicts arise when this is somehow thwarted. 

What is the humanist perspective on personality? 

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B.F skinner was the founder of that. he suggests that personality is a result of interactions between the individual and the environment. Focuses on observable/measurable behaviors and does not take internal thoughts/feelings into account. For deterministic:people begin as blank slates and environmental reinforcement and punishment completely determine an individuals subsequent behavior and personalities. 

What is the behaviorist perspective on personality? Deterministic?

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Personality is a result of reciprocal interactions among behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors. It was Albert Bandura is the person most associated with social learning, also called observational(or vicarious) learning. 

What is social cognitive perspective on personality?  

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Personality is a result of traits, which are habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion that are relatively stable over time. 
Cardinal traits: dominate individuals whole life. Often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits. People with such personalities often become so known for these traits that their names are often synonymous with these qualities. These traits are rare and tend to develpp later in life. 
Central traits: the general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality. These central traits, while not as dominating as cardinal traits. There are major charactertics you might use to descibe another person. Terms such as intelligent, honest, shy and anxious etc 
Secondary traits: Traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or perfrences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. 

What is the trait perspective on personality? What are cardinal traits? What are central traits? What are Secondary traits? 

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Personality is a result of individual difference in brain biology. Psychologist Hans Eysenck is most associated with this theory. 

What is the biological perspective on personality? 

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A field in which variation among individuals is separated into genetic versus environmental components.  There is behavior, personality, and disease incidence 

What is behavioral genetics? What do the variations include? 

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A metric used to determine how much of a variation is caused by genetic differences. Polygenic is from complex human characteristics are polygenic(resulting from multiple genes). Epigenetic differences are translational changes in DNA sequences that are not triggered by altering DNA sequence. 

What is heritability? What is polygenic? What is epigenetic differences? 

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Autism spectrum disorder has a strong genetic component: twin concordance is high. Many environmental factors thought to play a role, including pesticides, plastics, metals, air pollution, drugs taken by mother while pregnant. 
Phenylketonuria(PKU) is a inherited disorder resulting from a genetic mutation that renders the body unable to break down the amino acid phenylalanine.

What is Phenylketonuria(PKU)? What is Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD)? 

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We hold thoughts or beliefs("cognitions") that are incompatible or when our attitudes and behaviors dont match; in order to reduce this unpleasant feeling of tension, we make our views of the world match how we feel or what we have done. 

What is cognitive dissonance? 

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Driving force that causes us to act or behave in certain ways. We have instincts( behaviors that are unlearned and present fixed patterns throughout a species. Then we have Drives( originating from a physical discomfort like hunger). Then we have needs which are the same basic biological basic needs and we have higher level needs like a need for love and belonging. Then we have arousal ( Even when a persons need have apparently been met, restlessness, boredom, or curiosity may drive behavior. 

What is motivation? What are the factors that influence motivation? 

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This theory suggests that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to address that need by engaging in some behavior that will reduce the arousal. 

What is the Drive-reduction Theory? 

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the basic two levels are the physiological needs and safety needs. Then going upper we have love and belonging and then Esteem needs then the most top we have Self-Actualization. We must meet each level to move on to the next one. 

What are the Maslows Hierachy of needs? 

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The physiological, behavioral, and cognitive. With physiological(or bodily) component of emotion includes our physiological arousal or an excitation of our bodys internal state. With behavioral(or action) component of emotion includes our expressive behaviors that accompany the emotion. With cognitive( or mental) component of emotion includes our appraisal and interpretation of the situation. 

What are the three components of emotion? 

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The emotions that are expressed by all (normally developing or developed) humans across all cultures. 

What are universal emotions? 

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First we have James lange stimulus------physical response-----emotion. Second theory we have Cannon-board  stimulus but it divides into physical response and emotion that happen simulataneously Third finally is Schatacheter-singer in which we have a two factor theory like stimulus----physical response----cognitive interpretation ----emotion

What are the three theories of emotion? Explain them

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Developed by sigmund freud asserts that personality is shaped largely by the unconscious. Mental illness or neurosis is the result of unconscious conflicts, many of which stem from childhood. 


* the libido or life instinct, which drives behaviors focused on pleasure, survival, and avoidance of pain. 

* The death instinct, which drives dangerous or destructive behaviors, and underlies the desire to hurt onself or others. 

Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three components: 

The id, which largely unconscious and responsible for our desire to avoid pain and seek pleasure. 
the ego, which is responsible for our logical thinking and planning as we deal with reality 
the superego , which is responsible for our moral judgements of right and wrong and strives for perfection. 

What is the psychoanalytic perspective on personality ? What is the human behavior motivated by ? What are the three componenets the human psyche is divided into ? 

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Personality: the psychoanalytic perspective 

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A metric used to determined how much of a variation is caused by genetic differences. 

Epigenetic are translational changes in DNA sequence that are not triggered by altering DNA sequence

* caused by organimsms environment or development 

* result in phenotypic differences 

* may be heritable 

What is heritability ? Epigenetic  differences ? 

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PKU is a inherited disorder resulting from a genetic mutation that renders the body unable to break down the amino acid phenylalanine. Left untreated in infants, it can result in physical, intellectual, and social disabilties, seizures, and other severe medical problems. 
* ASD is a strong genetic component: twin concordance is high. Environmental factors thought to play a role such as pesticides, plastics, metals, air pollution, drugs taken by mother while pregnant. Earlier diagnosis and treatment is proven to improve behavioral deficits for children with ASD. 

What is Phenylketonuria(PKU) and Autism Disorder(ASD) ?

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Cognition:our thoughts and beliefs about the person, object, or event 

Affect: our feelings about the person, object, or event 

Behavior : our internal and external responses to the person, object, or event 

What are three components of attitude ? 

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This theory suggests we feel tension (“dissonance”) whenever we hold two thoughts or beliefs(“cognitions”) that are incompatible or when our attitudes and behaviors dont match; in order to reduce this unpleasant feeling of tension, we make our views of the world match how we feel or what we’ve done. 

What is cognitive  dissonance ? 

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Intincts : Behaviors that are unlearned and present in fixed patterns throughout a species like for example the desire to deal with a crying baby or curiosity about novel stimuli or affection 

Drives: Urges originatiing from a physiological discomfort; like hunger, thirst, or sleepiness 

Needs: while including bioligcial needs like love and belonging 


* Arousal: Even when a persons needs have apparently been met, restlessness, boredom, or curiosity may drive behavior 

What are factors that influence motivation ? 

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Suggests that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism ro address that need by engaging in some behavior that will reduce the arousal. 


* Homeostasis 

* Biolgical need 

* Arousal(drive) 

* Motivation to act 

* Goal-directed behavior 

* Need satisified/arousal reduced 

*these numbers are in order* 

What is the drive reduction theory ? 

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The physiological (or bodily) component of emotion includes our physiological arousal or an excitation of our bodys intenral state. 


The behavioral component of emotion includes our expressive behaviors that accompany the emotion

The coginitive component of emotion includes our appraisal and interpretation of the situation

What are the three components of emotion ? 

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Cognition: our thoughts and beliefs about the person, obect, or event 

Affect: our feelings about the person, object, or event 

Behavior: our internal and external responses to the person, object, or event 

What are three important components of attitude ? 

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Suggests that attitude affects a person average behavior, but not necessarily each isolated act 

What is the principle of aggregation ?

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* We are more likely to behave impulsively in certain situations 

* Impulsive behavior does not tend to reflect our behaviors 

* Give it time to consider and reflect however we are more likely to act based on our attitude 

What happens when self-reflection occurs ?

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* We have a tendency to attribute a greater value(greater than the objective value) to an outcome that we had to put more effort into acquiring or achieving 

* When we engage in a behavior that requires some degree of effort, we are more likely to shift our attitudes to align with the behavior 

What is justification of effort ? 

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Explain the Drive-reduction theory