Flashcards in Psychology: Chapter 7-Learning, Review system Deck (49):
A ______ _________ is a false but subjectively compelling memory.
Our memories are far more (reproductive/reconstructive) than (reproductive/reconstructive).
The three major systems of memory are measured by ________, or how much information each system can hold, and ___________, or how long a period of time the system can hold information.
i. Span (Range)
What is the three-memory model process proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin depicting memory flow
Sensory memory --> STM --> LTM*
*Information in LTM may be moved back to STM to be "worked on"
___________ memory is the brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to _______ memory.
i. Sensory memory
_______ ___________ is a subtype of sensory memory that applies to vision.
To extend the span of STM, we organize information into meaningful groupings using a process called ________.
The tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list better than those in the middle is known as the _______ _________.
___________ memory is the process of recalling information intentionally, and ________ memory is the process of recalling information we don't remember deliberately.
What are the subtypes of explicit memory?
What are the subtypes of implicit memory?
Priming, conditioning, habituation, procedural
The three major processes of memory are _______, _______ and _________.
___________ is the process of organizing information in a format that our memories can use.
If we use the phrase "Every good boy does fine" to remember the names of the lines (E, G, B, D, F) in the treble clef, we're using a _________.
Organized knowledge structures that we've stored in memory are called ________.
___________ is the reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores.
__________ is reacquiring knowledge that we'd previously learned but largely forgotten.
The law of ______ ______ _______ _______ explains why cramming for a test is not the best way to remember things well in the long run.
distributed vs mass practice
What is the memory concept that goes along with each pointer?
i. Spread your study time out rather than cramming.
ii. Connect new knowledge with existing knowledge rather than simply memorizing facts or names.
iii. Work to process ideas deeply and meaningfully, avoid writing notes down word for word. Write information in your own words.
iv. The more reminders or cues you can connect from your knowledge base to new material, the more likely you are to recall new material when tested.
v. Test yourself frequently on the material you've read.
i. Distributed vs. mass practice
ii. Elaborative rehearsal
iii. Levels of processing
iv. Mnemonic devices
v. testing effect
_________ _________ is the phenomenon of remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it.
In _________ __________, our retrieval of memories is superior when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context.
Lashley's studies with rats demonstrated that memory (is/isn't) located in one part of the brain.
Isn't, there is no single engram
Today, most scientists agree that LTP plays a role in ______.
The _______ plays a key role in forming lasting memories.
A person with _______ amnesia has lost some memories of his or her past.
The inability to encode new memories from our past experiences is called ________ amnesia.
If one must draw a picture by only looking at a mirror, what type of memory is accessed for this task?
Damage to the hippocampus impairs _______ memory but leaves _________ memory intact.
Senility (is/isn't) an unavoidable part of aging.
Alzheimer's disease accounts for only 50-60% of cases of ______, or severe memory loss.
Over time, children develop their enhanced _________ skills that provide knowledge about their memory abilities and limitations
Rovee-Collier's experiments used operant condition to study infant's _________ ________.
Rovee-Collier found that infant's memories of the experiences were surprisingly (general/specific).
_________ ________ is the inability to remember personal experiences that took place before the age of 3 or so.
European North Americans report (earlier/later) first memories than do people from Taiwan.
There (is/isn't) evidence that we can remember information that took place prior to birth.
The __________, which is critical for the establishment of LTM, is only partially developed in infancy.
Infants have little sense of _______, which makes it difficult to encode or store experiences in ways that are meaningful.
Which important indicator of the presence of a self-concept do humans and chimps exhibit?
_________ _________ are memories that are extremely vivid and detailed, and are often highly emotional.
Whenever we try to figure out whether a memory reflects something that really happened, we're engaging in _______ _________.
The failure to recognize that our ideas come from another source is called ___________.
Explain Elizabeth Loftu's misinformation effect and its influence on our memory.
Providing people with misleading information about an event can lead to fictitious memories.
Explain how we could have vivid memories of events we never experienced.
Using suggestive questions or statements, researcher's are able to implant fictitious memories.
Research has shown that it's (impossible/possible) to implant memories of a made up event that never happened.
The correlation between eyewitness' confidence in their testimony and the accuracy of this testimony is (weak/strong).
Research suggests that some ________ may be unintentionally implanting memories of traumatic events by means of suggestive procedures.
Most of us recover quickly from _________, a temporary inability to access information.