Psychology: Chapter 7-Learning, Review system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psychology: Chapter 7-Learning, Review system Deck (49):
1

A ______ _________ is a false but subjectively compelling memory.

Memory illusion

2

Our memories are far more (reproductive/reconstructive) than (reproductive/reconstructive).

i. Reconstructive
ii. Reproductive

3

The three major systems of memory are measured by ________, or how much information each system can hold, and ___________, or how long a period of time the system can hold information.

i. Span (Range)
ii. Duration

4

What is the three-memory model process proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin depicting memory flow

Sensory memory --> STM --> LTM*
*Information in LTM may be moved back to STM to be "worked on"

5

___________ memory is the brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to _______ memory.

i. Sensory memory
ii. STM

6

_______ ___________ is a subtype of sensory memory that applies to vision.

Iconic memory

7

To extend the span of STM, we organize information into meaningful groupings using a process called ________.

Chunking

8

The tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list better than those in the middle is known as the _______ _________.

Primacy effect

9

___________ memory is the process of recalling information intentionally, and ________ memory is the process of recalling information we don't remember deliberately.

i. Explicit
ii. Implicit

10

What are the subtypes of explicit memory?

Semantic, Episodic

11

What are the subtypes of implicit memory?

Priming, conditioning, habituation, procedural

12

The three major processes of memory are _______, _______ and _________.

i. encoding
ii. storage
iii. retrieval

13

___________ is the process of organizing information in a format that our memories can use.

Encoding

14

If we use the phrase "Every good boy does fine" to remember the names of the lines (E, G, B, D, F) in the treble clef, we're using a _________.

Mnemonic

15

Organized knowledge structures that we've stored in memory are called ________.

Schemas

16

___________ is the reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores.

Retrieval

17

__________ is reacquiring knowledge that we'd previously learned but largely forgotten.

Relearning

18

The law of ______ ______ _______ _______ explains why cramming for a test is not the best way to remember things well in the long run.

distributed vs mass practice

19

What is the memory concept that goes along with each pointer?
i. Spread your study time out rather than cramming.
ii. Connect new knowledge with existing knowledge rather than simply memorizing facts or names.
iii. Work to process ideas deeply and meaningfully, avoid writing notes down word for word. Write information in your own words.
iv. The more reminders or cues you can connect from your knowledge base to new material, the more likely you are to recall new material when tested.
v. Test yourself frequently on the material you've read.

i. Distributed vs. mass practice
ii. Elaborative rehearsal
iii. Levels of processing
iv. Mnemonic devices
v. testing effect

20

_________ _________ is the phenomenon of remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it.

Encoding specificity

21

In _________ __________, our retrieval of memories is superior when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context.

Context-dependent learning

22

Lashley's studies with rats demonstrated that memory (is/isn't) located in one part of the brain.

Isn't, there is no single engram

23

Today, most scientists agree that LTP plays a role in ______.

Learning

24

The _______ plays a key role in forming lasting memories.

Hippocampus

25

A person with _______ amnesia has lost some memories of his or her past.

Retrograde

26

The inability to encode new memories from our past experiences is called ________ amnesia.

Anterograde

27

If one must draw a picture by only looking at a mirror, what type of memory is accessed for this task?

Implicit

28

Damage to the hippocampus impairs _______ memory but leaves _________ memory intact.

i. explicit
ii. implicit

29

Senility (is/isn't) an unavoidable part of aging.

isn't

30

Alzheimer's disease accounts for only 50-60% of cases of ______, or severe memory loss.

dementia

31

Over time, children develop their enhanced _________ skills that provide knowledge about their memory abilities and limitations

meta-memory

32

Rovee-Collier's experiments used operant condition to study infant's _________ ________.

implicit memory

33

Rovee-Collier found that infant's memories of the experiences were surprisingly (general/specific).

Specific.

34

_________ ________ is the inability to remember personal experiences that took place before the age of 3 or so.

Infantile amnesia

35

European North Americans report (earlier/later) first memories than do people from Taiwan.

earlier

36

There (is/isn't) evidence that we can remember information that took place prior to birth.

isn't

37

The __________, which is critical for the establishment of LTM, is only partially developed in infancy.

hippocampus

38

Infants have little sense of _______, which makes it difficult to encode or store experiences in ways that are meaningful.

self

39

Which important indicator of the presence of a self-concept do humans and chimps exhibit?

Mirror self-recognition.

40

_________ _________ are memories that are extremely vivid and detailed, and are often highly emotional.

Flashbulb memories

41

Whenever we try to figure out whether a memory reflects something that really happened, we're engaging in _______ _________.

Source monitoring

42

The failure to recognize that our ideas come from another source is called ___________.

Crymptomnesia

43

Explain Elizabeth Loftu's misinformation effect and its influence on our memory.

Providing people with misleading information about an event can lead to fictitious memories.

44

Explain how we could have vivid memories of events we never experienced.

Using suggestive questions or statements, researcher's are able to implant fictitious memories.

45

Research has shown that it's (impossible/possible) to implant memories of a made up event that never happened.

Possible

46

The correlation between eyewitness' confidence in their testimony and the accuracy of this testimony is (weak/strong).

weak

47

Research suggests that some ________ may be unintentionally implanting memories of traumatic events by means of suggestive procedures.

psychotherapists

48

Most of us recover quickly from _________, a temporary inability to access information.

blocking

49

In a well known example of __________, violinist Philippe Quint once left his 4 million dollar violin in a cab.

absentmindedness

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