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Consciousness

Personal awareness of mental activities internal sensations and the external environment

1

Attention

The capacity to selectively focus awareness on particular stimuli in your external environment or on your internal thoughts or sensations

2

Circadian rhythm

A cycle or rhythm that is roughly 24.2hours long the cyclical daily functions in biological and psychological processes

3

Superachiasmatic nucleus

A cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus in the brain that governs the timings for the circadian rhythm

4

Melatonin

A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness

5

Electroencephalograph

An instrument that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to measure brain activity

6

Rem sleep

Type of sleep during which rapid eye movement and dreaming usually occur and voluntary muscle activity is suppressed also called active sleep or paradoxical sleep

7

NREM sleep

Quiet typically dreamless sleep in which rapid eye movements are absent divided into four stages also called quiet sleep

8

Beta brain waves

Brain waive patern associated with alert wakefulness

9

Alpha brain waves

Brain wave pattern associated with relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness

10

Hypnagogic hallucinations

Vivid sensory phenomena that occur during the onset of sleep

11

Sleep spindles

Short burst of brain activity that characterize stage 2 Nrem sleep

12

K complex

Single but large high voltage spike of brain activity that characterizes stage 2 or nrem

13

Stage 1 Nrem

Last only a few min gradually disengage from surroundings can quickly regain consciousness some hypnagogic imagery but not detailed dreams

14

Stage two Nrem

Slight muscle twitches sleep spindles and k complex breathing becomes rhythmical delta brain waives begin to emerge stage last 15-20 min

15

Stage 3 and 4

Refers to as slow wave sleep when delta brain waves represent 20% it's stage 3 when its 50% it's stage 4 last about 20-40 min heart rate blood pressure and breathing all decrease you become oblivious to the outside world

16

Bottom up processing

Information processing that emphasizes the importance of the sensory receptors in detecting the basic features of a stimulus in the process of recognizing a whole pattern

17

Top down processing

Information processing that emphasizing the importance of e observers knowledge expectations and other cognitive processing in Arivng at a meaningful perception

18

Sleep thinking

Vague bland thought like rumination about real life events that typically occur during NREM sleep also called sleep men ration

19

restoritive theory of sleep

sleeping is essential for revitalizing and restoring the physiological processes that keep the body and mind healthy and properly functioning. This theory suggests that NREM sleep is important for restoring physiological functions, while REM sleep is essential in restoring mental functions.

20

adaptive theory of sleep

suggests that periods of activity and inactivity evolved as a means of conserving energy. According to this theory, all species have adapted to sleep during periods of time when wakefulness would be the most hazardous.

21

Manifest content

In freuds psychoanalytic theory the element of a dream that are consciously experienced and remembered by the dreamer

22

Latent content

In freuds psychoanalytic theory the unconscious wishes thoughts and urges that are concealed in the manifest content of a dream

23

Activation-synthesis model of dreaming

The theory that brain activity during sleep produces dreams images which are combined by brain into a dream story

24

Neurocognative model of dreaming

Model of dreaming that emphasizes the continuity of waking and dreaming cognition and states that dreaming is like thinking under conditions of reduced sensory input and the absence of voluntary control

25

Barbiturates

A category of depressants that Duce anxiety and produce sleepiness

26

Tranquilizers

Depressent drugs that relive anxiety

27

Opiates

A category o psychoactive drugs that are chemically similar to morphine and have strong pain relieving properties also called opioids or narcotics

28

Amphetamines

A type of stimulant that arouses the central nervous system and suppresses hunger

29

Law effect

Learning principle proposed by thirndike that responses followed by a satisfying effect become strengthened and are more likely to recur in a particular situation while response followed by a dissatisfying effect are weakened and are LEss likely to recur