Psychology Final Flashcards Preview

Psychology Final > Psychology Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psychology Final Deck (105)
Loading flashcards...
1

John has some deep-seated values of what is right and what is wrong. When Freud analyzes him, he tells John that these values are held in what personality structure?

Supergo

2

A scientific criticism of psychodynamic theories of personality.

They are often untestable (not falsifiable).

3

A research team is interested in determining how heritable aggression is. They recruit what sort of individuals to participate in their study to determine the answer?

Identical fraternal twins

4

Parenting books suggest that child-rearing practices produce the strongest, and perhaps only real, influence on children's personality development. Based on the evidence, how powerful is the correlation between child-rearing techniques and personality?

weak to nonexistent

5

Jason's thoughts and behavior influence the sorts of situations that he finds himself in. The situations that he finds himself in also seem to influence what he does and what he thinks. Behaviorists called this _______.

Reciprocal determinism

6

Which of the following is one of the Big Five personality traits?
openness, acceptance, conscientiousness, or neuroticism

acceptance

7

What is personality?

Characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors across time and situations.

8

Annie belongs to a collectivist culture. She is more likely to have which of the following characteristics as a result of being raised in that culture compared to an individualist culture?

A. priority to individual goals
B. value independence and achievement
C. value group harmony
D. attend to the costs of relationships

C. value group harmony

9

Which of the following is not a piece of evidence that supports Noam Chomsky's idea of a language acquisition device (innate capacity for human language development)?

A. identification of a language acquisition structure in the human brain.
B. overgeneralization of (langauge use) rules.
C. language development is similar across many cultures.
D. Children invent their own language if they are not exposed to one.

A. Identification of a language accquisition structure in the human brain.

10

Which of the following represents a change in the view of Piaget's theories based on modern research?

A. Children do not develop conservation abilities until they are in their teens.
B. Children develop exactly the same regardless of the culture in which they are raised.
C. Young children are more egocentric than Piaget thought
D. Development seems to happen in a more continuous fashion and not in steps/stages

D. Development seems to happen in a more continuous fashion and not in steps/stages.

11

Amy's personal understanding and experience of being female is her what?

gender identity

12

Which of the following problems of alleged problems of adolescence is backed up by evidence?
A. Teens today are more violent than in previous years
B. Teens are more likely to engage in risky behavior than when they were younger
C. Teens have lower self-esteem than they do as children
D. Teens are more likely to engage in sexual activity than their parents at the same age.

B. Teens are more likely to engage in risky behavior than when they were younger.

13

Susie is given two small cookies and johnny is given one large cookie. Johnny is upset because Susie has "more" than him. Johnny's mother breaks Johnny's cookie into two pieces and this makes Johnny happy. Which stage of cognitive development is Johnny most likely at?

Preoperational.

14

A few years later, the same thing happens with Suzie and Johnny. This Time, after the cookie is broken in two, Johnny says, "But it is still the same cookie, you just broke it in half." What stage of cognitive development is Johnny now at?

Concrete operations

15

What is the correct order of the three stages of prenatal development?

germinal, embryonic, fetal

16

Neurons communicate at synapses through the use of specialized chemicals. What are these chemicals called?

Neurotransmitters

17

Dr. McClelland is studying the patterns of electrical activity in the brain. Which method is she most likely to be using?

EEG

18

What are neurons?

cells that can send and receive information

19

The tiny branch-like structures that are attached to the cell body and which can receive signals from adjacent neurons are called?

dendrites

20

Which of the following neurotransmitters functions as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain?

GABA

21

Endorphins give a species an evolutionary advantage because of what reason?

they make pain bearable so the pain doesn't interfere with action.

22

When sleeping, one type of "wave" that is evidenced in an EEG is a delta wave. Delta waves are most common during which stage of sleep?

Stage 4

23

If John continues to habitually inject heroin, he will likely find that he needs to take more and more of that drug in an effort to capture the feeling he achieved the first time that he used it, He is experiencing ______.

tolerance

24

Amy has taken heroin 20 to 30 days per month for over a year. As such, she has become dependent on the drug. She eventually stops taking it and ends up feeling nauseous, intense craving for the drug, and intense aches and pains. What is she experiencing?

withdrawal

25

A person's expectations of how a drug will make him/ her feel can influence his or her actual experience with taking that drug. These expectations are referred to as the person's ______.

Mental set

26

Eric has taken heroin. Like most other psychoactive drugs, its effects are caused in the brain through what mechanism?

By acting on the brain's neurotransmitters

27

Susan has taken a drug that has made light seem to be distorted for her. When she sees headlights of cars passing her house, it seems like the lights just hang there in the air for a time. What drugs has she most likely taken?

LSD

28

Madeline takes a drug and experiences an euphoric rush as well as making her feel very alert and excited. What drug has she most likely taken?

Cocaine

29

Tom has taken a drug that has made him feel very calm and relaxed. He no longer feels worried about anything. What drug has he most likely taken?

a barbiturate

30

Michael takes a drug and experiences a euphoric rush as well as a significant reduction in joint pain. What drug has he most likely taken?

Heroin