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Flashcards in Psychology Module 1 Deck (26):
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A.

Definitions & Goals

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1. The broad definition of psychology is the systematic, scientific study of A. and B. The term in A. Refers to observable responses of animals and humans, and in term B. refers to processes that are not directly observable, such as thoughts, ideas, and dreams.

A. Behaviors B. Mental Processes

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2. All psychologists agree that the first three goals of psychology are to A. what organisms do, to B. how organisms behave as they do, and to C. how they will respond in the future and in different situations. Some psychologists add a fourth goal, which is to D. behavior and this curb or eliminate psychological or social problems.

A. Describe B. Explain C. Predict D. Control

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B.

Modern Approaches

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3. Because behavior is so complex, psychologist study it using six different approaches. The approach that focuses on how a persons genetic makeup, hormones, and nervous system interact with the environment to influence a wide range of behaviors is called A. approach

A. Biological

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4. The approach that studies how organisms learn new behaviors or change or modify existing ones in response to influences from the environment is called the A. approach. There are two versions of this approach. One that primarily studies observable behaviors and excludes mental events is called B. and is best expressed by the ideas of B.F. Skinner; the other, which includes observable behaviors plus cognitive processes, is called the C. approach and is expressed by ideas of Albert Bandura and his colleagues.

A. Behavioral B. Strict Behaviorism C. Social Learning

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5. An approach that examines how our unconscious fears, desires, and motivations influence behaviors, thoughts, and personality and cause psychological problems is called the A. approach. Sigmund Freud developed this approach as well as the technique of dream interpretation, to bring unconscious ideas to the surface.

A. Psychoanalytic

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6. The approach that investigates how people attend to, store, and process information and how this information affects learning, remembering, feeling, and believing is called the A. approach

A. Cognitive

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7. An approach that emphasizes people's capacity for personal growth, freedom in choosing their future, and potential for self fulfillment is called the A. approach. One of the founders if this approach is Abraham Maslow.

A. Humanistic

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8. The approach that studies how cultural and ethnic similarities and differences influence psychological and social functioning is called the A. approach.

A. CrossCultural

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C.

Historical Approaches

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9. Considered the father of psychology, Wilhelm Wundt an approach called A. This approach studied the elements of the conscious mind by using a self report technique called B. Wundts approach was the beginning of today's cognitive approach.

A. Structuralism B. Introspection

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10. Disagreeing with Wundts approach, William James said that it was important to study functions rather than elements of the mind. Accordingly, James studied the functions of consciousness as well as how mental processes continuously flow and adapt to input from the environment. This approach is called A. James's ideas contributed to the modern area of psychology and have also influenced educational psychology.

A. Functionalism

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11. Also disagreeing with Wundts approach was a group of psychologists, led by Wertheimer, Kohler, and Koffka, who stated tha perceptions cannot be explained by breaking them down into individual elements or sensations. Instead, they believed that perceptions are than the sum of individual sensations, an idea called the A. approach.

A. Gestalt

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12. Another psychologist who disagreed with Wundts approach was John B. Watson. He stated that psychology should use scientific principles to study only observable behaviors and not mental events, an approach called A. Watsons approach gave rise to the modern behavioral approach.

A. Behaviorism

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D.

Cultural Diversity: Early Discrimination

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13. During the first 75 years of its more than 100 years of existence, the fiend of psychology discriminated against A. and B. as indicated by the very limited number of these individuals who were granted Ph.D.s or offered positions in major universities. During the past 25 years, the American Psychological Association, minority organizations, and most universities and colleagues have been actively recruiting minorities and helping them enter the field of psychology.

A. Women B. Minorities

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E.

Research Focus: Taking Class Notes

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14. Three different strategies for note taking we're studied: note taking plus review, which means writing down almost everything the instructor says; note taking plus questions, which means writing a summary of the lecture in your own words. The note taking strategy that resulted in the highest exam grades involved A., and the note taking strategy that resulted in the lowest exam grades involved B.

A. Answering Questions B. Reviewing Notes

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F.

Careers In Psychology

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15. There are five major settings in which psychologists work and establish careers. The largest percentage of psychologists work in a private practice or A. settings, where they diagnose and help clients with psychological problems. The second largest group work in B. settings, doing a combination of teaching and research. The third largest group work in a C. of settings. The fourth largest group work in D. settings, where they are involved in selecting personal, increasing job satisfaction, and improving worker management relations. The fifth largest group work in other settings, such as E., where they do academic testing and counseling.

A. Therapy and Clinical B. Academic C. Variety D. Industrial E. Schools

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G.

Research Areas

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16. There are six common subareas in which psychologist specialize. Those who are interested in prejudice, attitudes, and group behaviors or in a personality development and change specialize in A. psychology. Those interested in social, emotional, and cognitive changes across the lifespan specialize in B. psychology. Those interested in studying sensations, perceptions, learning, and motivation, often under laboratory conditions, specialize in C. psychology. Those interested in the interaction among genes, the nervous system, and the environment choose D. Those interested in how people process, store, and retrieve information choose E. psychology, and those who are interested in the measurement and testing is skills, abilities, personality, and mental problems specialize in F.

A. Social and Personality B. Developmental C. Experimental D. Biological or Physiological Psychology E. Cognitive F. Psychometrics

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H.

Application: Study Skills

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17. A common mistake that many students make is that, when they plan their study schedules, they often A. the time it will take to complete a task.

A. Underestimate

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18. Another common mistake that students make is that they think they know the material after reading the text and reviewing their notes. A better way to to judge how prepared you are for an exam is to ask yourself specific A. Rather than to trust your judgement about what you think you know. A good way to make your study time more efficient is to set specific B. and keep track of your progress. Immediately after you reach a performance goal, give yourself a C. which will both maintain and improve your motivation. To improve your lecture notes, try to associate new lecture material with what you already know, and use your notes to ask and answer D. In your own words. One of the most effective ways to overcome a strong tendency to delay starting a task, known as E., is to stop thinking about the final goal. Instead, break down a large assignment into a series of smaller goals and work on each goal separately. Finally, it's best to set a realistic F. in order to accomplish each of the smaller goals.

A. Questions B. Performance Goals C. Reward D. Questions E. Procrastination F. Schedule