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Flashcards in Psychology Module 20 Deck (27):
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A.

Social Cognitive Theory

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1. One Theory says that personality development is shaped primarily by environmental conditions (learning), cognitive personal factors, and behavior, which all interact to influence how we evaluate, interpret, and organize information and apply that information to ourselves and others; this is called A. theory

A. Social Cognitive Theory

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2.Albert Bandura called the version of his original social learning theory the A. Theory. Bandura's theory assumes that for distinctively human cognitive processes highly developed language ability, observational learning, purposeful behavior, and self-analysis influence the growth, development, and change in B.

A. social cognitive B. personality

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3.our highly developed A. Ability provides us with a tool for processing and understanding information, which is critical to personality development. Our capacity for B. Learning allows us to learn through watching, without observable behavior or a reinforcer. Our capacity for forhought enables us to plan ahead and set goals to perform C. Behavior. Finally, the fact that we can monitor our thoughts and actions as well as set and change goals and values give us the capacity for D.

A. Language B. Observational C. Purposeful D. Self-analysis

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4. the power of beliefs and ideas to change the way that we interpret situations and events is one of the basic assumptions of social cognitive theories. Rotter developed a scale to measure our belief about how much control we have over situations or rewards; he called this belief A. If we believe that we have control over situations and rewards, we are said to have an B. locus of control. In contrast, if we believe that we do not have control over situations and rewards and that events outside ourselves determines what happens, we are said to have an C. Locus of control.

A. Locus of control B. Internal C. External

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5.according to Bandura, our personal belief regarding how capable we are exercising control over events in our lives is called A. According to Mischel, our voluntary postponement of an immediate reward and persistent in completing task for the promise of a future reward is called delay of B.

A. self efficacy B. Gratification

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B.

Trait theory

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6. a relatively stable and enduring tendency to behave in a particular way is called a A. An approach to understanding the structure of personality by measuring, identifying, and analyzing differences in personality is called B. Theory. In attempting to pare down a list of traits by finding relationships among them, researchers have used a statistical method called C.

A. Trait B. Trait C. Factor analysis

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7. the model that organizes all personality traits into five categories is called the A. These five categories, known as the big five, are B. ,,,, And; their initial letters spell out the word ocean.

A. Five factor model, big five B. Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

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8. Mischel questions the basic assumption of trait theory, saying that, if traits represent consistent behavioral tendencies, they should predict behaviors across many different A. Instead, he found that people behave with great consistency in the same situation but behaved with low consistency across different situations. Mischel pointed out that predicting a persons behavior must take into account not only the persons traits but also the effects of the situation; this idea became known as the B. Interaction.

A. Situations B. Person situation

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C.

Genetic influences on traits

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9. How inherited or genetic factors influence and interact with psychological factors for example, the way we behave, adapt, and adjust to our environments is the focus of the fields of behavioral A. Current thinking about genetic factors is that they do not fix behaviors but rather set a range for behaviors. Researchers estimate genetic influences with a measure that estimates how much of some behavior is due to genetic influences; this measure is referred to as B.

A. Genetics B. Heritability

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10. Considering the various influences on personality development, researchers estimated that about 40% of the influence comes from A., which are inherited. About 27% of the influence on personality development comes from environmental factors that involve how each individual reacts and adjusts to his or her own environment; these are called B. factors. About 7% on the influence of personality development comes from environmental factors that involve environmental factors that involve parental patterns and shared family experiences; these are called C. factors. The remaining 26% of the influence on personality development cannot as yet be identified and is attributed to errors in testing and measurement procedures.

A. Genetic Factors B. Nonshared Environmental C. Shared Environmental

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D.

Evaluation of Trait Theory

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11. Trait theory assumes that differences among personalities can be described by a short comprehensive list of traits. Critics of the current list, known as the A., point out that the data for the model may paint to simplistic a picture of human personality and may not reflect its depth and complexity. Trait theory assumes that traits are consistent and stable influences on our B., but critics argue that when traits are measured in one situation, they do not necessarily predict behaviors in the other situations.

A. Big Five B. Behaviors

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12. The biggest changes in personality occur during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood because young men and women are somewhat more likely to be open to new ideas. Personality is less likely to change after age A. Observation from over 10000 pairs of twins indicate that B. factors significantly influence personalty traits. Critics warn that inherited factors should not be exaggerated because 50% or more of the influence on traits comes from C. influences.

A. 30 B. Genetic C. Environmental

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E.

Research Focus: 180-Degree Change

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13. If you are to experience a sudden and radical or dramatic shift in personality, beliefs, or values, you would be said to have experienced a A. in personality. One way researchers studied these changes in personality was to ask each individual the same set of relatively narrow and focused question so that the same information was obtained from everyone; this method is called the B.

A. Quantum Change B. Structured Interview

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F.

Cultural Diversity: Suicide Bombers

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14. Individuals who volunteer to become suicide bombers do so for both strong A and A. Reasons. Personal reasons may include such things as wanting to avenge the death of a loved one. Almost all suicide bombers are raised in the Muslim culture, whose belief hold that individuals who die as a suicide bomber are considered C., who are revered in the culture as prophets.

A. Personal, Cultural B. Martyrs

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15. In pursuing their goals, violent Muslim groups will continue to use suicide bombers because they have widespread A. approval and are an affective method of killing, instilling B., and spreading their political C.

A. Cultural B. Fear C. Message

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G.

Four Theories of Personality

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16. How does personality grow and develop? We discussed four different answers. The theory that emphasis the importance of early childhood, unconscious factors, and three divisions of the mind, and psycho-sexual stages is called A. The theories that focus on the phenomenological perspective, a holistic view, and self actualization are called B. theories. The theory that says that personalty development is shaped by the interaction among three factors environmental conditions, cognitive personal factors, and behavior is called C. theory. The theory that emphasizes measuring and identifying differences among personalities is called D.

A. Freud's Psychodynamic Theory B. Humanistic C. Social Learning D. Trait

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H.

Application: Assessment-Objective Tests

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17. Self report questionnaires, which consist of specific written statements that require structured responses for example, checking true or false are examples of A. personality tests.

A. Objective

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18. A true false self report questionnaire containing hundreds of statements that describe a wide range of normal and abnormal behaviors is called the A. The purpose of this test is to distinguish normal from B. groups.

A. Minnesota Mutliphasic Personlaity Inventory-2, or MMPI-2 B.Abnormal

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19. The method of listing a number of traits in such a general way that almost everyone who reads a horoscope thinks that many of the traits apply specifically to him or her is called the A. principle.

A. Barnum