Flashcards in psychology quiz chaps 11-13 Deck (74):
what is stress?
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
what are catastrophes and what do they do to you?
Unpleasant, large-scale events
• Significant damage to emotional and physical health
what are significant life changes?
Personal life transitions
what are the three responses to stress?
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
what is the alarm response to stress
1st phase (sympathetic nervous system activated , initial stress)
what is the resistance response to stress
2nd phase (the body copes with stressor, become okay with it)
what is the exhaustion response to stress
3rd pase (body’s reserves get depleted, nothing more to give)
what is an individualist culture and their approach to support
Less likely to seek social support; favor problem-focused coping
- U.S. is individualist culture (focus on me and our success)
what is a collectivist culture and their approach to support
More oriented to social support; favor emotion-focused coping
- Singapore or China... might live with extended family
what is immune system affected by?
– Body temperature
- stress does not cause cancer, but it weakens immune response to these tthings
what is health psychology
is a subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine.
who came up with name of type A personality and what is it?
Friedman and Rosenman’s, term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger- prone people
who came up with name of type B personality and what is it?
• Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easy going, relaxed people
what is type D
• More recent term, used for people who suppress negative emotion to avoid social disapproval
the idea that “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
what are three ways psychologists say you should manage anger and what are they?
– Wait: Emotional arousal will decrease if you wait just long enough.
– Find a healthy distraction or support: Exercise, play an instrument, talk to a friend.
– Distance Yourself
what is coping?
Reducing stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
what are the different types of coping and describe them
– Problem Focused Coping: Attempting to reduce stress directly—by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
–Emotion-Focused Coping: Attempting to reduce stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to
The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or person learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
what are some things we can do to experience less stress
• Having a sense of control
• Developing more optimistic thinking
• Building social support can
what are some things to manage stress?
• Aerobic exercise
• Active spiritual engagement
what is culture
There is diversity in the value groups place on
various traits (for example, social acceptance and harmony in collectivist cultures and self-esteem and achievement in individualist cultures).
Emotions balance around a level
defined by experience; happiness set point.
what three things predict our happiness level?
twin studies, personal history, culture
About 50 percent of happiness rating
differences among people seems to be heritable—
attributable to genes.
what are some things you can do to increase your mood?
1. Realize that enduring happiness may not come from financial success
2. Take control of your time
3. Act happy
4. Seek work and leisure that engage your skills
5. Buy shared experiences rather than things
6. Join the “movement” movement
7. Give your body the sleep it wants
8. Give priority to close relationships
9. Focus beyond self
10.Count your blessings and record your gratitude
11. Nurture your spiritual self
Use scientific methods to study how people think about, influence, and relate to one another
– Study the social influences that explain why the same person will act differently in different situations
The theory that we explain someone else’s behavior by crediting either the situation (a situational attribution) or the person’s disposition (a dispositional attribution).
- how do you think about things
- either say a person is cting someway bc of the situation or they acted that way bc its a trait or disposition
- what we attributes someones behavior to like an event or personality
fundamental attribution error
is the tendency, when analyzing others’ behavior, to overestimate the influence of personal traits and underestimate the effects of the situation.
what culture factors affect our attributions?
• Cultural factors:
– Individuals from individualist cultures (Westerners) more
often attribute behavior to personal traits.
– Individuals from collectivist cultures (East Asian, for
example) more often attribute behavior to situational
what are attitudes?
are feelings influenced by beliefs, that predispose reactions to objects, people, and events.
what is foot in the door phenomenon
– People agreeing to a small request will find it easier to agree later to a larger one
– Principle works for negative and positive behavior
cognitive dissonance theory
We act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent.
- providing evidence to get them to think about their own opinion and the talk to them and maybe get them to change opinion and agree with you
- exist when thee is discomfort or not in agreement with cognition, like two different opposing thoughts about the same things, or thoughts are opposites of actions
– When we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
- try to find beavior that fixes pain
what is culture
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people
what is norm
Norm: Understood rules for accepted and expected
• Each cultural group evolves its own norms; when cultures collide, their differing norms can confuse or even anger
- when really good at something and they are observed, their performance increase and vice versa if you suck and being observed you do worse
- like in riots when you get caught up in group identity and less self restraint and awarness and you know you will be ananoymous
what is group think and who came up with it?
(Irving Janis, 1982): The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony within a decision- making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
- when a group of people are brainstorming and get a few ideas and two ppl like one idea and everyone else then everyone else follows and change their minds to liking it
- happens when people want to keep hamrony and peace
• Groupthink is prevented when leaders
– Welcome various opinions, usually in diverse groups – Invite experts’ critiques of developing plans
– Assign people to identify possible problems
what is prejudice?
• Means “prejudgment”
• Is an unjustified negative
attitude toward a group
and its members
• Often targets a different
cultural, ethnic, or gender group
what are components of prejudice?
• Beliefs (stereotypes)
• Emotions (for example,
hostility or fear)
• Predispositions to action (to discriminate)
The privileged often developed attitudes that justify the status quo.
• Stereotypes rationalize inequalities.
remembering vivid cases
• We often judge the frequency of events by instances that come readily to mind.
- things such as 9/11
- now we are scared of all muslims
- publicized situations
an unselfish concern for the welfare of others.
is the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
- you see something with a group of people but think they will say something so you say nothing
social exchange theory
• Social exchange theory
– Maximizing rewards and minimizing costs (accountants call it cost-benefit analysis; philosophers call it utilitarianism; psychologists call it social exchange theory)
– Expectation that people will respond favorably to each
other by returning benefits for benefit
social responsibility norm
– Expectation that people should help those who depend on them
what are the three reasons we help
reciprocity norm, social responsibility norm and social exchange theory
what is frauds psychodynamic theory
Childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality
• Psychodynamic theorists inspired by Freud
Focus on inner capacities for
growth and self-fulfillment
what is self
In contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.
– Self one of psychology’s most vigorously studied topics.
Overestimating others’ noticing and
evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
– Consideration of possible selves motivates toward positive development; too intense focusing may lead to spotlight effect.
One’s sense of competence and effectiveness.
A readiness to perceive oneself favorably
• Suggests people accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad, and for successes than for failure
• Often creates a better-than-average effect
• When self-esteem is threatened, people may react
Excessive self-love and self-absorption
– Authentic pride, rooted in actual achievement, supports
self-confidence and leadership
Giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly.
what areas do individualism and what do collectivism
– Although people within cultures vary, different cultures emphasize either individualism or collectivism. Individualism is valued in most areas of North America, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. People in many Asian, African, and Latin American countries place a higher value on collectivism.
why are three kinds of stress?
catastrophes, significant life changes, daily hassles and social stress
Relaxing and silently attending to your inner state, without judging it.
how is culture transmitted and what does it transmit?
• Transmitted from one generation to the next
• Transmits customs and beliefs that enable us to
communicate with each other
• Transmits agreed-upon rules to avoid confrontation
Prejudice vs Discrimination?
prejudice is a negative attitude and discrimination is a negative behavior
who came up with psychodynamic theory?
who came up with psychoanalysis
it was inspired by sigmund freud
what is self-esteem?
how one feels about themselves
who came up with psychoanalytic theory and how does this theory view personality?
Sigmund Freud and they say personality consists of id, ego, superego
what is id?
operates on the pleasure seeking principle. ex. you know you have homework but go party it'll be fun you can do it later
what is the ego?
operates on the reality principle. ex. if you were a good student you wouldn't be partying and you'd just be studying
what is superego?
combination of id and ego. ex. if you do your homework then you can go study
who came up with the psychodynamic theory and how do they view persoanlity?
Alfred adler, Karen horney, Carl Jung
- view personality as interplay of unconscious motives and conflicts shape our personality
who came up with humanistic theory and how does this theory view personality?
Carl rogers and Abraham Maslow
- people strive towards self actualization
- if basic needs are met, they can develop self-awareness ad hire positive self-concept in climate of positive regard
What are the five personality factors think OCEAN?
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
who came up with five personality factors?
allport, eysenck, mcCrae, Costa