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Flashcards in Psychology / Sociology Deck (24):
1

Define mediating variable

A mediating variable is one which explains the relationship between two other variables.

2

In the research cited, if it was found that Hispanic patients were prescribed less pain medication than Caucasian patients due to Hispanic patients having disproportionally less insurance than Caucasian patients, then insurance coverage would be considered:

A.
a moderating variable.
B.
a mediating variable.
C.
a confounding variable.
D.
both an independent and dependent variable.

B is correct.

A mediating variable is one which explains the relationship between two other variables. Here, insurance coverage connects patient race and physician prescriptions. A moderator variable is one that influences the strength of a relationship between two other variables, and a mediator variable is one that explains the relationship between the two other variables. As an example consider the relation between social status and frequency of testicular self-exams. Age might be a moderator variable, in that the relation between social status and testicular self-exam might be stronger for older men and less strong or nonexistent for younger men. Education might be a mediator variable in that it explains why there is a relation between self-exam and social status. This would mean when we remove the effect of education, the relation between the two variables disappears.

3

Define attrition bias

Attrition bias occurs when participants drop out of a long-term experiment or study.

4

Define selection bias

Selection bias refers to a type of bias related to how people are chosen to participate. In this case, people who witnessed unethical behavior in medical school may have been more likely to respond to the survey.

5

Define social desirability bias

Social desirability bias is a type of bias related to how people respond to research questions. The physicians may have known that the researcher was examining unethical behavior and responded a certain way. Since the topic is fairly sensitive, they may have also understated unprofessional behavior or responded in a way that they felt was most socially acceptable.

6

Define reconstructive bias

Reconstructive bias is a type of bias related to memory. Most research on memories suggests that our memories of the past are not as accurate as we think, especially when we are remembering times of high stress. The physicians may not have accurately remembered what they witnessed during medical school.

7

Define reconstructive bias.

Reconstructive bias is a type of bias related to memory. Most research on memories suggests that our memories of the past are not as accurate as we think, especially when we are remembering times of high stress. The physicians may not have accurately remembered what they witnessed during medical school.

8

Define neustress

Neustress is a neutral type of stress. Neustress happens when you are exposed to something stressful, but it doesn’t actively or directly affect you. For example, news about a natural disaster on the other side of the world may be very stressful, but your body doesn’t perceive that stress as good or bad for you so you aren’t affected.

9

Define eustress

Eustress is a positive type of stress that happens when you perceive a situation as challenging, but motivating. Eustress is usually enjoyable!

10

Define distress

Distress is a negative type of stress that builds over time and is bad for your body. It happens when you perceive a situation to be threatening to you some way (physically or emotionally) and your body becomes primed to respond to the threat.

11

Define compliance

When one privately disagrees with a specified behavior but publicly conforms.

12

Define internalization

Internalization refers to a situation where the one would publicly and privately conform and accept the behavior.

13

Define identification

Identification refers to a situation where one would conform to a behavior because they like or respect the person who exhibits it.

14

Define informational social influence

Informational social influence refers to a situation where one would conform by turning to others in their group for information about what is correct.

15

Which reinforcement schedule tends to produce the highest response rate (Think variable-ratio, fixed-ratio, variable-interval, fixed-interval)?

Variable-ratio reinforcement schedules tend to produce the highest response rates that are the most resistant to extinction, which is exactly why casinos use them.

16

Define the Stroop Effect

The Stroop effect describes the phenomenon in which it is harder for an individual to reconcile different pieces of information relating to colors than to reconcile similar pieces of information.

17

Through what form of social influence are new ideas most likely spread?

A.
Compliance
B.
Identification
C.
Internalization
D.
Minority influence

D is correct. When a new idea arises, it is automatically a minority opinion. This idea can then be spread through the influence of the minority on others accepting this view.

18

What type of conflict are the jurors in the study likely experiencing if they are unsure of the defendant's guilt?

A.
Approach-approach conflict
B.
Avoidant-avoidant conflict
C.
Approach-avoidant conflict
D.
Double approach-avoidant conflict

D is correct. Double approach-avoidant conflicts consist of two options with both appealing and negative characteristics, which seems to represent the jury’s dilemma. If they rule the defendant guilty, they would either be punishing a criminal (approach) or punishing an innocent (avoidant). If they rule the defendant innocent, they would either be letting a criminal walk away unpunished (avoidant) or freeing an innocent (approach).

A: In approach-approach conflicts, two options are both appealing.

B: In avoidant-avoidant conflicts, both options are unappealing

C: An approach-avoidance conflict is observed when one option has both positive and negative aspects, but there are two options in the question above.

19

The elaboration likelihood model refers to:

A a theory describing learning patterns.
B a theory regarding attitude changes.
C a phenomenon that takes place when individuals are in groups.
D a data manipulation technique that affects attitudes.

B a theory regarding attitude changes.

20

A researcher uses a partial-report procedure after presenting participants with an array of nine numbers for a fraction of a second. Which of the following is the most likely result of this procedure?


A The participant will be able to recall any of the rows or columns in great detail but only immediately after presentation.
B The participant will only be able to recall the first few numbers in the array due to the serial position effect.
C The participant will be able to recall approximately seven of the numbers for a few seconds following presentation of the stimulus.
D The participant will not be able to recall any of the numbers verbally, but will be able to draw the full array under hypnosis.

[A] is the correct answer.

Partial-report procedures, in which the individual is asked to recall a specific portion of the stimulus, are incredibly accurate, but only for a very brief time. This is a method of studying sensory (specifically, iconic) memory.

Both the serial position effect, choice (B), and the 7 ± 2 rule, choice (C), are characteristics of short-term memory.

21

A patient comes in with a tumor of the pituitary gland, which grows upwards into the optic chiasm and causes a visual field defect. The most likely defect from compression of the optic chiasm is:


A complete blindness in one eye.
B loss of the upper visual fields in both eyes.
C loss of the nasal visual fields in both eyes.
D loss of the temporal visual fields in both eyes.

[D] is the correct answer.

The optic chiasm houses the crossing fibers from each optic nerve. Specifically, the fibers coming from the nasal half of the retina in each eye cross in the chiasm to join the optic tract on the opposite side. Remember that the lens of the eye causes inversion, so images on the nasal half of the retina actually originate in the temporal visual field. This condition is called bitemporal hemianopsia.

22

A woman feels tense at a party with a number of new faces, with particularly negative emotions toward the male host. Upon reflection, she realizes that the host is wearing the same cologne that her ex-husband wore. This situation is an example of:


A James-Lange Theory.
B Canon-Bard Theory.
C Schachter-Singer Theory.
D Reward Theory.

Schachter-Singer Theory is based on the idea that people search for cues in the environment to help explain their emotions or visceral feelings. In this case, the woman had a visceral negative reaction against the host, seemingly inexplicably. Searching for the cues she realized it was because of the reminder about her ex-husband. James-Lange Theory purports that the physical response is the actual driver of the emotion, in this case that the cologne is detected which causes anger, effectively skipping over the emotional "baggage" of the cologne. Canon-Bard Theory is that the physiological response and the emotions associated with them are completely distinct, which in this case is not the situation being described. Reward Theory is not relevant to this context. The correct answer is thus (C).

23

A study is performed where 1000 people who wear seat belts and 1000 people who do not are followed for several years to observe differences in outcomes. This study is an example of a:
Please click on the correct answer:

A observational study.
B cohort study.
C cross-sectional study.
D case-control study.

Cohort studies are longitudinal studies that evaluate differences in a particular cohort over time. The cohort is a group of individuals who have a particular defining characteristic (e.g., those who do and do not wear seat belts). Thus (B) is the correct answer.

24

Per cognitive appraisal theory, secondary appraisal:
Please click on the correct answer:

A evaluates a situation for the presence of stressors.
B evaluates a secondary stressor rather than a primary stressor.
C is typically not utilized in fairly stressful circumstances.
D evaluates ones ability to deal with a stressor.

Primary appraisal evaluates a situation for a stressor and then secondary appraisal is used to determine whether the individual can cope with that particular stressor. If not, then there will be a proportionally larger generation of stress. Thus (D) is the correct answer.