__________ psychology is practical and designed for real world application, while __________ psychology is focused on research of fundamental principles and theories.
What are the four lobes of the human brain?
Frontal: reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, problem solving
Parietal: movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
Occipital: visual processing
Temporal: perception/recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, speech
Why are our brains wrinkled?
The surface of the brain is covered with neurons and wrinkles (or fissures) increase the surface area so more neurons can fit within a smaller area. These neurons form connections with one another to transmit more information.
What is brain lateralization?
Brain lateralization is the phenomenon in which a skill or function is preferably controlled by one side of the brain over the other, causing the hemispheres to have specialized functions.
True or False: Some people are more left-brained (logical), while others are more right-brained (creative).
This is a myth about brain lateralization. While the location of certain brain functions may vary amongst people, the idea that someone uses one side "more" and is therefore more logical or creative is untrue.
What is brain plasticity?
As our brains develop, there are skills or functions that are more or less important for each individual to perform. Because of this, the neuronal connections in our brains strengthen or weaken to adapt to those needed functions, especially if there is damage to other areas of the brain.
True or False: Humans only use 10 percent of the brain.
This myth came about sometime around the end of the 19th or beginning of the 20th century. Humans use 100% of the brain.
What area of the brain is located in the left inferior frontal cortex and is associated with language outputs?
Named for Paul Pierre Broca, a French physician whose studies on speech impairments led to this discovery.
What area of the brain is located in the left superior posterior temporal lobe and is associated with the processing of spoken words?
What are a human's five basic senses?
What is a human's dominant sense?
About 80% of human cognition is facilitated by vision.
What is change blindness?
A perceptual phenomenon that occurs when a visual change is made but goes unnoticed by an observer.
If you are zoning out in class and your teacher suddenly uses a swear word, you will snap back to attention. What is this phenomenon called?
The cocktail party effect focuses our attention on something salient, like hearing our name in a roomful of people, or hearing a teacher curse.
True or False: If you flip a coin 10 times and it lands on heads 10 times, the odds are high that it will land on tails on the 11th flip.
This is a common misconception, known as the gambler's fallacy. In actuality, the odds are 50/50 that the coin will land on tails, as each flip is independent of the others.
What is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
A psychological theory introduced in 1943 by Abraham Maslow. It details human needs, from the most basic needs of life to more emotional, cognitive needs.
What are Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development?
- Hopes (0-2 years)
- Will (2-4 years)
- Purpose (4-5 years)
- Competence (5-12 years)
- Fidelity (13-19 years)
- Love (20-39 years)
- Care (40-64 years)
- Wisdom (65+ years)
At what age do most babies speak their first word?
Most babies speak their first word between 9 and 12 months. A baby's first word is most commonly "mama" or "dada."
What do psychologists call the ability to recall information in smaller bits?
For example, we are used to chunking phone numbers into smaller bits – 3 or 4 digit groups.
The process of converting information into a form that can later be recalled is known as __________.
In order to remember information, the brain must first encode it, then store it, then eventually retrieve it.
What is the term for the ability to apply previous learning to new situations?
Transfer (of learning)
What three distinct components comprise the mind, according to Freud?
Id: responsible for basic human needs and desires
Ego: conscious, cognitive part of the mind
Super-ego: connection to others and culture
What is a depressant?
A depressant is any drug that reduces the activity of a certain part of the brain or body. The umbrella group "depressant" includes the following substances, among others:
What is a stimulant?
A stimulant is any drug that induces alertness or wakefulness, and improves mental or physical functioning.
Stimulants are often used to treat ADD and ADHD, as well as narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. Legal stimulants include caffeine, nicotine, Adderall, and Ritalin. Illegal stimulants include cocaine, crystal meth, and MDMA (a.k.a. ecstacy).
Which disorder is commonly diagnosed during childhood and is characterized by lack of self-control and overactivity?
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Approximately 3-5% of children are diagnosed with ADHD, though researchers believe more children remain undiagnosed.
The two most common types of amnesia are anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. What is the difference between the two?
Anterograde amnesia is the inability to remember new information or events that occurred after the onset of amnesia.
Retrograde amnesia is the inability to remember information or events that occurred before the onset of amnesia.
What group of disorders includes OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder), PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder), and GAD (General Anxiety Disorder)?
Treatment for anxiety disorders includes medication and therapy.
What neurodevelopmental disorder appears within the first three years of a child's life and presents through difficulty with socialization?
Some of the major symptoms associated with autism include:
- Difficulty with social interaction
- Slow development of speaking ability
- Repetition of overheard phrases
- Heightened or decreased sensitivity to external stimuli
- Distress in response to changes in routine
What disorder results in extreme mood swings?
Most people living with bipolar disorder are diagnosed by age 25. Approximately 5.7 million American adults have been diagnosed with this disorder.
What neurological condition presents through difficulty reading or writing?
Dyslexic people may confuse similar sounds or letters, reverse letters or words, or completely substitute certain words for others. Some studies show that nearly 5-10% of the population suffers from varying degrees of dyslexia.
What category of disorders results in abnormal and unhealthy eating habits?
Includes anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. These issues are more common in females, likely due to cultural factors.