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Flashcards in Psychopathology Deck (15):

Describe the process of systematic desensitisation

1- Counter conditioning: phobic stimulus associated with relaxation
2- Reciprocal Inhibition: relaxation inhibits anxiety
3- Relaxation: deep breathing, peaceful scene, muscle relaxation
4- Desensitisation hierarchy: least to most scary, relaxation at each step


Describe the process of flooding

Patient experiences phobia whilst practising relaxation. Session continues until patient is fully relaxed


How effective is systematic desensitisation?

Research has shown that 75% of patients with phobias respond to SD


Is systematic desensitisation appropriate for all phobias?

Öhman et al suggests that it may not be as effective in treating phobias that have an underlying evolutionary survival component


How would someone be diagnosed by statistical infrequency?

If they deviate from the typical values of a set of data


How would someone be diagnosed by deviation from social norms?

-Norms are created by society
-Behaving differently from social norms is abnormal


Give 2 evaluations of deviation from social norms

•Related to context and degree
•Social norms change over time


Give 2 evaluations of statistical infrequency

•Some abnormal behaviour is desirable
•Cut-off point is subjectively determined


What is failure to function adequately?

Being unable to handle everyday life (abnormal if it causes distress to self and/or others)


What are the 6 categories of ideal mental health?

•Personal growth
•Accurate perception of reality
•Mastery of the environment


What are 2 evaluations of failure to function adequately?

•Behaviour may be functional for individual- eg result in them getting attention
•Recognises the subjective experience of the patient


Give 2 evaluations of deviation from ideal mental health

•Unrealistic criteria- most people don't meet all of them
•Suggests that mental health is the same as physical health


State the emotional, behavioural and cognitive characteristics of phobias

•Emotional- Excessive and unreasonable fear, extreme anxiety
•Behavioural- avoidance or freeze/faint
•Cognitive- Irrational thinking, and recognising that the fear is unreasonable


State the emotional, behavioural and cognitive characteristics of depression

•Emotional- Sadness, loss of interest in usual activities, anger
•Behavioural- Shift in activity level, sleep or appetite
•Cognitive- negative self-concept, negative view of the world and the future


State the emotional, behavioural and cognitive characteristics of OCD

•Emotional- Obsessions and compulsions cause anxiety and distress
•Behavioural- compulsive behaviours to satisfy obsessions
•Cognitive- recurrent, intrusive thoughts