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Flashcards in Psychopathology Deck (51):
1

Define statistical infrequency

Occurs when an individual has a less common characteristic, for example being more depressed or less intelligent than most of the population.

2

Define deviation from social norms

Concerns behaviour that is different from the accepted standards of behaviour in a community or society.

3

What is Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)?

Impulsive, aggressive and irresponsible.
An important symptom is an 'absence of prosocial internal standards associated with failure to conform to lawful or culturally normative ethical behaviour'.

4

Explain failure to function adequately.

This definition perceives people as abnormal when their behaviour suggests they cannot cope with everyday life.

5

Outline schizophrenia

When a person can have disturbing hallucinations which can lead to bizarre behaviour.
Individuals experience distress and they can be irrational or unpredictable.

6

State some of the criteria for 'Ideal Mental Health'

- We have no symptoms or distress.
- We are rational and can perceive ourselves accurately.
- We self-actualise.
- We can cope with stress.
- We have a realistic view of the world.
- We have good self-esteem and lack guilt.
- We are independent of other people.
- We can successfully work, love and enjoy our leisure.

7

Outline depression.

Sufferers generally have a low self-esteem.
They struggle to make decisions.
Experience high levels of stress concerning their low mood.

8

What are 3 DSM-5 categories of phobia?

Specific Phobia
Social Anxiety
Agoraphobia

9

What are the behavioural characteristics of phobias?

Panic
Avoidance
Endurance

10

What are the emotional characteristics of phobias?

Anxiety
Unreasonable responses

11

What are the cognitive characteristics of phobias?

Selective attention to the phobic stimulus
Irrational beliefs
Cognitive distortions

12

What are DSM-5 categories of depression?

- Major depressive disorder
- Persistent depressive disorder
- Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

13

What are the behavioural characteristics of depression?

Activity levels
Disruption to sleep and eating behaviour
Aggression and self-harm

14

What are the emotional characteristics of depression?

Lowered mood
Anger
Lowered Self-esteem

15

What are the cognitive characteristics of depression?

Poor concentration
Attending to and dwelling on the negative
Absolutist thinking

16

What are the DSM-5 categories of OCD?

OCD
Trichotillomania
Hoarding disorder
Excoriation disorder (skin picking)

17

What are the behavioural characteristics of OCD?

Compulsions
Avoidance

18

What are the emotional characteristics of OCD?

Anxiety and Stress
Accompanying depression
Guilt and Disgust

19

What are the cognitive characteristics of OCD?

Obsessive thoughts
Cognitive strategies to deal with obsessions
Insight into excessive anxiety

20

Define the behavioural approach

A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning.

21

Define classical conditioning

Learning by associations. Occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired together (neutral and unconditioned stimulus).
The neutral stimulus eventually produces the same response that was first produced by the unconditioned.

22

Define operant conditioning

A form of learning in which behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
Possible consequences include positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement or punishment.

23

What is the two-process model?

The behavioural approach emphasises the role of learning in the acquisition of behaviour.

24

What are the two processes in the two-process model?

Acquisition by classical conditioning
Maintenance by operant conditioning

25

Name two behavioural methods for treating behaviour

Flooding
Systematic desensitisation

26

Outline the processes in flooding

When the phobic patient is exposed to an extreme form of a phobic stimulus in order to reduce anxiety triggered by that stimulus.
Takes place over long sessions

27

Outline systematic desesitisation

A behavioural therapy designed to reduce an unwanted response to a stimulus.
Three stages:
Anxiety hierarchy
Relaxation
Exposure

28

Name a limitation for flooding

There are some ethical safeguards as it can be an unpleasant experience.
However, people are fully warned and give their consent beforehand.

29

Outline the ABC model

A- activating event
B- beliefs
C- consequences

30

Who came up with the ABC model?

Albert Ellis, 1962

31

Who came up with the negative triad?

Aaron Beck, 1967

32

Outline the negative triad

Negative view of the world
Negative view of the future
Negative view of the self

33

What are schemas?

A package of information we hold about ourselves and the world.

34

Outline the processes of CBT in treating depression

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
A method for treating mental disorders based on cognitive and behavioural techniques.
CBT begins with an assessment in which the patient and therapist work together to clarify the patients' problems.
It involves working to change negative and irrational thoughts and finally put more effective behaviours into place.

35

What is Beck's cognitive therapy?

The idea is to identify automatic negative thoughts about the world, future and self.
It holds a "patient as scientist" philosophy in which they investigate the reality of their beliefs.

36

Outline Ellis' REBT

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy
Extends the ABC model to an ABCDE with D standing for dispute and E for effect.
The central technique is to identify and challenge irrational thoughts.

37

Outline behavioural activation

A therapist may work to encourage a depressed patient to be more active and engage in enjoyable activities.
This behavioural activation will provide more evidence for the irrational nature of beliefs.

38

Define genetic explanations for OCD.

Genes make up chromosomes and consist of DNA which codes the physical features of an organism and psychological features. Genes are transmitted from parents to offspring.

39

Define neural explanations for OCD.

The view that physical and psychological characteristics are determined by the behaviour of the nervous system, in particular the brain as well as individual neurons.

40

What is the diathesis-stress model?

The idea that certain genes leave some people more likely to suffer a mental disorder but is not certain- some environmental stress is necessary to trigger the condition.

41

Outline candidate genes in OCD

The gene 5HT1-D beta if implicated in the efficiency of transport of serotonin across synapses.
The COMT gene regulates production of dopamine which effects motivation and drive.

42

How many genes may be involved in OCD

230

43

What is the role of serotonin in the brain?

If a person has low levels of serotonin then normal transmission of mood-relevant information does not take place and mood is affected.
At least some cases of OCD may be explained by a reduction in the functioning of the serotonin system in the brain.

44

Explain the function of the basal ganglia.

This area is responsible for innate psychomotor functions.
Rapport and Wise proposed they hypersensitivity of the basal ganglia gives a rise to the repetitive behaviours seen in OCD.

45

Explain the function of the orbitofrontal cortex.

The OFC is involved in decision making and worry about social behaviour. In OCD it is believed to be overactive.

46

Explain the function of the thalamus.

The thalamus is a brain are whose functions include cleaning, checking and safety behaviours.
An overactive thalamus would result in an increased motivation to clean or check for safety.

47

Outline the function of SSRIs

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the standard treatment for OCD.
They work by increasing certain neurotransmitters in the brain by preventing re-absorption of serotonin.
By preventing the re-absorption and breakdown of serotonin SSRIs effectively increase its levels in the synapse and thus continue to stimulate the postsynaptic neuron.

48

What can SSRIs be combined with?

CBT

49

Name two alternatives to SSRIs

Tricyclics
SNRIs

50

What are tricyclics?

They have the same effects on the serotonin system as SSRIs but often have more severe side-effects.

51

What are SNRIs?

Serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors.
These are a second line of defence for people who don't respond to SSRIs.
SNRIs increase levels of serotonin as well as other different neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline.