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Flashcards in Psychopharmacology & Toxins Deck (40):
1

How do monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) work?

Inhibit the enzyme MAO (which deactivates DA, NE, & serotonin)

1

Drug potentiation

Synergistic action of 2+ drugs when this is more powerful than their additive effects

2

Cognitive deficits associated with long-term MDMA use

Persist up to 1 year postabstinence Learning & memory, exec fx & planning, attention & vigilance, verbal fluency, visual scanning

2

Mercury exposure is associated with

Encephalopathy of cerebellum, BG, primary visual corteix, spinal cord Motor slowing, clumsiness, tremor, paresthesia, visual & hearing defects, agitation Long-term exposure associated with depression, slowing, impaired STM

2

Dialysis dementia

Caused by high brain aluminum levels Marked by stuttering & dysfluent speech, myoclonus & difficulty swallowing, concentration & memory problems

3

Neuroimaging findings among cocaine users

Cerebral atrophy correlated w/ length of use, demyelination, hyperintensities, vasospasm, stroke-like defects, multiple patchy areas of hypoperfusion, EEG - marked reduced alpha power in frontal & temporal regions

4

Typical antipsychotics work by

Blocking dopamine

4

How do beta-blockers work?

Block beta-adrenergic receptors, which respond to epinephrine & NE

5

How do tricyclics work?

Block reuptake of NE & serotonin (DA?)

6

Name some common tricyclics

ANDI: amitriptyline, nortirptyline, doxepin, imipramine

7

How do benzodiazepines work?

Inhibit GABA

7

Side effects of benzodiazepines

Can cause sedation/drowsiness, confusion, disorientation in elderly, disturbed sleep, potential for withdrawal If stopped, see rebound hyperexcitability leading to seizures, depersonalization, panic, & stroke

8

Neuroimaging findings in recently detoxified alcoholics

Cerebral atrophy & white & gray matter volume loss

9

Neuropsych deficits associated with glue sniffing

Dose-related deficits in attention, memory, visuospatial fx, complex cognition, naming, reading/writing

10

How do barbiturates work?

Interrupt impulses to RAS

11

MAOIs are used for

Used for atypical depression, hostility, anxiety, hypochondriasis

12

Alcohol-induced persisting dementia

Dysfx of general intellectual abilities, memory, visuospatial abilities, abstraction, problem solving Orientation to time & place, language abilities remain well-preserved May be on average 10 yrs younger than those w/ other dementias, 2x the avg length of institutionalization

14

Symptoms of cocaine withdrawal

Crash, disrupted sleep, appetite, psychomotor fx, vivid disturbing dreams due to REM rebound

15

How do amphetamines work in the CNS?

Provoke discharge of DA & then blocks reuptake Increases activity of NE that produces sympathomimetic effects

16

Tricyclics are used for

Used for somatic & vegetative symptoms of depression, panic attacks, agoraphobia, & obsessive states

18

Long term cognitive deficits among amphetamine users

Attentional & motor skills, verbal memory & attention

19

How do atypical antipsychotics work?

Work on D2 & other DA receptors, serotonin, & glutamate

20

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

High fever, severe muscle rigidity, altered consciousness, ANS dysregulation

22

Hepatic encephalopathy

Perform worse on STM, eye tracking, hand-eye coordination Many deficits improve following liver transplantation, memory does not Subclinical can cause sig. memory impairment & motor slowing w/ intact intellectual fx & abstraction

23

Primary CNS target of manganese

Dopaminergic neurons in striatum

25

NP findings among sober moderate-heavy cocaine users

Memory flexibility & control, attention & concentration, visuomotor ability, verbal & visual learning/memory

26

Multiple exposures to PCP may produce what chronic impairments?

Memory & confusion

27

How do SSRIs work, and what are they used for?

Block reuptake of serotonin; used for depression, OCD, eating disorders

28

CNS damage from carbon monoxide is centered in

GP, cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, fornix, CC

29

Characteristic triad of opioid overdose

Coma, miosis, respiratory depression

31

Long-term cognitive deficits associated with alcohol use

Complex memory deficits due to use of inefficient organization strategies during encoding; problem-solving, perceptuomotor abilities, visual learning & memory, contextual memory

32

What are beta-blockers used for?

used for physical manifestations of anxiety, high BP, angina, tremors, migraines, glaucoma

33

How does MDMA work in the CNS?

Provokes sudden emptying of presynaptic serotonin stores With continued use, destroys serotoninergic neurons & creates cognitive impairments

34

Symptoms of mercury exposure

Cerebral encephalopathy, oral hemorrhage, auditory/visual hallucinations, fine motor tremor, insomnia, agitation

35

What are some contraindications for psychostimulants?

anxiety & tension, anorexia, HTN, hx of psychosis, recent hx of drug or ETOH abuse, pre-existing motor tics

36

How do psychostimulants work?

Works on catecholamines (DA, NE, epinephrine)

37

Neuroimaging findings among heavy MDMA users

Global decreases in 5-HT transporter densities in parieto-occipital, occipital, & sensory cortex

38

NP findings in current cocaine users

Deficits in verbal & visual recall, WM, attention

39

How does cocaine work in the CNS?

Provokes a discharge of DA from presynaptic storage vesicles & then blocks its reuptake (particularly in mesolimbic system) Blocks reuptake of NE => pronounced sympathomimetic effects (arrhythmias, HTN, vasospasm, pupillary dilation) Blocks reuptake of serotonin => euphoria

40

Central serotonin syndrome

Severe HA, nystagmus, tremor, dizziness, unsteady gait, irritability, confusion, delirium, cardiac arrhythmia