Flashcards in Psychosis Deck (19):
What is the definition of psychosis?
The presence of hallucinations or delusions
psychosis describes symptoms, not a diagnosis in itself.
What is a hallucination?
Perception without stimulus. Can be in any sensory modality.
Can hallucinations occur in the "normal" population?
When do hallucinations most often occur without then being pathological?
on falling asleep
on waking up
What are hallucinations when waking up called?
What are hallucinations when falling asleep called?
What is a delusion?
An abnormal belief, outside cultural norms, that is unshakeable.
Name 4 first rank symptoms of schizophrenia.
1. Auditory hallucinations
2. passivity experiences
3. Thought withdrawal, broadcast or insertion
4. Delusional perceptions
5. Somatic hallucinations
What are auditory hallucinations?
1. thought echo - hearing thoughts aloud
2. hearing running commentary about themselves - "he's brushing his teeth, he's sitting down"
What are passivity experiences?
It is the patient's belief an action or feeling is caused by an external force.
"MI5 have been moving my leg"
What is "thought withdrawal, broadcast or insertion"?
- Thought withdrawal = thoughts are being taken out of my mind
- Thought broadcast = thoughts are being made known to others "my thought are being put on radio"
- Thought insertion = thought implanted by others "X is making me think this"
What is delusional perception?
Attribution of new meaning, usually in the sense of self reference, to a normally perceived object-
"the traffic lights went red and I knew tis was a sign that aliens were going to land soon"
What do we mean by positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
- positive = new, extra things = hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, lack of insight
- negative = things that have gone = under activity, low mood, social withdrawal, emotional flattening
Which brain pathway is thought to be hyperactive in schizophrenia?
What is the mesolimbic pathway?
Its a dopaminergic pathway of reward.
Connects ventral tegmentum (midbrain) to the nucleus accumbens and limbic structures.
Which pathway is thought to be underactive in schizophrenia?
What is the mesocortical pathway?
Dopaminergic pathway of cognitive control, emotion, motivation.
From ventral segmental areas (midbrain) to frontal cortex and cingulate cortex
What are the 2 classes of treatment for schizophrenia?
a) Typical antipsychotics - block D2 receptors in all CNS
b) Atypical antipsychotics - low affinity for D2, milder effect