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Flashcards in Psychotherapy Deck (11)
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What are the 4 models of psychopathology?

Supernatural, biological, sociological, psychological


What are the 4 different psychological models?

Psychoanalytic, humanistic, behavioural, cognitive


Cause and treatment of psychoanalytic model?

Cause = unresolved unconscious conflict
Treatment = insight into unconscious processes


Cause and treatment of humanistic model?

Cause = thwarted self-actualisation
Treatment = empathy, unconditional positive regard


Cause and treatment of behavioural model?

Cause = learnt responses to stimuli - eg learned to be scared of things that aren't objectively scary
Treatment = new learning


Cause and treatment of cognitive model?

Cause = negative core beliefs, biased thinking
Treatment = cognitive restructuring, new ways of thinking


New psychological models?

CBT model and Mindfulness-based models


What are some nonspecific factors of treatment?

1. Client motivation and hope (doing something about it)
2. Therapist empathy, general counselling skills
3. Therapist-client alliance (knowing that this person is on your side)
these are nonspecific because they are not targeting the core of the problem


What has reliance on DSM been criticised in EST research?

Diagnosis is dehumanising
DSM medical model is not appropriate
- but need to take into account generalisability somehow


What has reliance on treatment manuals been criticised in EST research?

1. reduces treatment quality - treatment should be designed for individual cases (yes everyone is different, but in the interests of science it is necessary to establish rules so that treatment can apply to everyone)

2. Limits generalisability to the clinical setting as clinicians don't usually use treatment manuals (but maybe they should)


What is the strongest argument against EST research?

Reliance on RCTs means that findings are unlikely to generalise to ordinary treatment settings
controlled vs messy setting