Flashcards in Pt 3: Chapter 9 Notes Deck (49):
Any organization that seeks to influence public policy
How does an interest group differ from a political party?
Parties address a broad range of issues
A party is just a larger set of what
Interest groups correlate ____ to political parties in recent years
Federalism and separation of powers does what to interest groups?
Tocqueville called America what?
"A nation of joiners"
Tocqueville wrote what? And in it he said what about Americans with groups?
Democracy in America
- Americans are more likely to affiliate with groups than any other nation
What are some problems with pluralism?
- not everyone has groups
- compromise is unlikey
- there are alliances to STOP things
In Fed #10, Madison said what about Americans?
- factions are natural to Americans
- we have a great opportunity to join groups, so we do, and we do so to express our value towards liberty
These are examples of what kind of groups?
- business groups
- labor groups
- farm groups
- professional groups
What is an environmental interest group an example of?
What kind of interest group is most effective in having their message heard in Washington DC
Do the rich and powerful have an advantage in the American political system?
YES. Ability to organize and further interests greater
This is what?
- purposive incentives
- based on social groupings
- single- issue groups
- ideological groups
Economic groups vs. citizens groups:
- who have a greater access to resources?
Economic groups are to these kinds of resources as citizens groups are to these kind of resources
Economic -> private goods
Citizens -> collective goods
What is the size factor with economic groups vs. citizens groups?
Business groups are smaller and more efficient
What is one specific problem with citizens groups shown with NPR?
The free rider problem. they get collective benefits even without contributing
Economic groups also have the free rider problem, but to a lesser extent, among who?
Teachers, police officers, fire fighters in economic groups. Even if they refuse to join the union, they still get the salary benefits that the unions win
What is the "Revolving door" with inside lobbying?
Politicians are voted out of office on one day, the next day they get a way higher private job with lobbying organization (bringing with them a whole hoard of contacts and insider info)
What do insider lobbyists supply officials with
With information and policy support.
What is the key element in acquiring access to officials?
Money and the amount contributed
What is the goal of outsider lobbying?
To become an insider
Do governments lobby other governments?
Yeah. City of Louisville lobbies state and national government for bridges and stuff
These are made up of
- bureaucrats, lobbyists, legislators
- small, informal, stable
These are made up of:
- officals, lobbyists, and policy specialists
Which happen more often, iron triangles or issue networks?
If there is an Iron triangle of the dept of Agriculture, who are not in the mix?
The farmers themselves
A group that doesnt have a direct tie with an organization or elected official but can cite large numbers (they can get lawmakers attention if/when they want to)
Outside lobbying : grassroots lobbying
What is the specialty of the AARP?
Constituency advocacy through grassroots lobbying
This is when members of the public try to get lawmaker's attention
Outside lobbying make what kind of contributions to candidates?
Political action committee (PAC) contributions
Most PACs are associated with what
PACS are given much more heavily to incumbents or new-runners?
Regulates PACs, commissions, elections.
PAC contributions are limited to ____$ per candidate for each election cycle
Whats the difference between a connected PAC and non-connected PAC
Connected PAC: have to have a formal connection to the organization to be apart of it
Nonconnected PAC: no formal connected needed to contribute to it
__% of PACs are part of our system and political process, legitimate interest, purpose, and play by the rules
Any organization that forms in order to influence public policy
What % of PACs are business related?
Super PACs are also known as what?
Super PACS came about (the phrase) in what event?
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)
Super PACs are not allowed to do what?
Not allowed to contribute/coordinate directly to the party or candidate
Super PACs have what funding restrictions?
They have unrestricted fundraising and spending, disclosure of donors is not required
The contributions of groups to self-government
What are some flaws in pluralism?
- interest-group liberalism
- not equally representative
A Madisonian dilemma:
- a free society must allow pursuit of what?
A Madisonian dilemma:
- checks and balances work to protect rights, but also exaggerate what?
the influence of minorities