Flashcards in PUBLIC HEALTH Deck (41)
what is the definition of health (WHO 1948)?
health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
it is a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities
what is the biomedical model of healthcare?
- physical and biological factors of disease - can be repaired
- only health professionals practice it
- the focus is on diagnosis, cure and treatment of disease - solutions are found in technologies
- mind/body dualism - suggests they can be treated separately
- knowledge is objective - neutral and distinct from social factors
what is the social model of healthcare?
- gives thought to a wide range of factors
- wide range of people can practice it
- focus is on prevention
- challenges mind/body dualism
- knowledge is not objective - we are taught how to see the body
what are the different theories of health?
- health as an ideal state
- health as a state of social functioning
- health as a personal strength or ability
what is the theory of health as an ideal state?
- goal of perfect wellbeing (WHO definition)
- disease, illness and forms of handicap, along with social problems must be absent for health to be present
what are the problems with the theory of health as an ideal state?
- is anyone ever healthy?
- what is complete wellbeing?
- can we ever attain the ideal state?
what is the theory of health as a state of social functioning?
- health is a means towards social functioning
- all forms of disease and social handicap need to be removed
- can still be healthy (function socially) even when suffering with a chronic illness/disease
what are the problems with the theory of health as a state of social functioning?
- very narrow definition seeing health as the opposite of disease
- patients normal state may be unhealthy
- refusal of treatment might be seen as healthy
what is the theory of health as a personal strength or ability?
- approaches are typically humanist - focus on how people respond to challenges
- health is a means to a greater end - responding positively to problems
- attempts to recover holistic ideas about health
what are the problems with the theory of health as a personal strength or ability?
- it is vague
- how can we intervene?
what is the definition of illness?
the social, lived experience of symptoms and suffering
what is the definition of disease?
technical malfunction or deviation from the norm which is scientifically diagnosed
what is the Culver and Gert theory of illness/disease?
it is an aggregation of condition, judged by culture, deemed to be painful, or disabling and which deviate from statistical norm or some idealised state
what are the problems with the Culver and Gert theory of illness/disease?
it mixes disease and illness - you can have pathology without feeling ill
what is the William White theory of illness/disease?
- the state of the organism, which is currently losing a battle with temperature, water, micro-organisms, disappointment etc (disruption of homeostasis)
- it is visualised as the reaction to an energy impact (addition or deprivation)
what is the Perry and Miller theory of illness/disease?
it is the disturbance of the structure or function of the body
- imbalance between the individual and his environment
- it is a lack of perfect health
what is the biomedical model of illness/disease?
- more disease = poorer health
- problems can be resolved by remedies - therefore health is something that exists outside of the person
- the definition was used to inspire governments to invest in health services
what are the problems with the biomedical model of illness/disease?
- risk of mysticism - regain something we've lost as a result of personal or social failing
- not all problems can be solved with a remedy
- suggests a solution is with the medical practitioner not the individual
what are the 2 different types of determinants of health?
lifestyle factors promoting mortality
what are the structural determinants of health?
living and working conditions
what lifestyle factors promote mortality are determinants of health?
what are the 6 different sociological models of health
what is the sociology sociological model of health?
- study of social relations (bonds between people and groups) and social processes (direct human actions result from collective human actions)
- social structures can include religion, family or medical professional
what is the functionalism sociological model of health?
- suggests health is the state of optimum capacity of an individual for being effective at the tasks required by them for society
- illness could be a state of social deviance - failure to conform to norms. if 1 person is ill, society can be seen as unhealthy
- doctors distinguish between normality and deviance
what is the marxist sociological model of health?
- economy is the base of society and this changes the pattern of health with society
- health is viewed at 2 levels:
- affected by either directly- by industrial disease or indirectly - by commodity production
- income and wealth determine standard of living
what is the social paradox model of health?
diseases caused by social factors (eg lifestyle) but treated with biological interventions (needs to be tackled socially as well)
what is the medicalisation hypothesis model of health?
- professionals see problems in terms of their own profession - thus doctors see everything medically
- problems that seem medical could be the products of social forces
what is the iatrogenesis sociological model of health?
- the unintended adverse effects of a therapeutic intervention
- can be clinical, social or cultural
what is the sick role?
- illness has a double impact on the body and social functioning
- people inhabit social roles
- illness is harmful to social functioning thus it allows a legitimate deviance from social obligation