Pulmonary 1 (Week 13) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pulmonary 1 (Week 13) Deck (53):
1

eupnea

normal, effortless breathing

2

hyperpnea

increased rate, increased tidal volume (happens with exercise)

3

hypoventilation

inadequate alveolar ventilation (blockage of airway; neurological injury)

4

hyperventilation

alveolar ventilation exceeds metabolic demands; leads to hypercapnia

5

hypocapnia

decreased CO2

6

what happens when CO2 levels increase

as CO2 levels decrease, blood vessels in brain constrict (under local control)
-you pass out

7

cyanosis

bluish coloring of skin, nailbeds, mucous membranes

8

clubbing

bulbous enlargement of tips of fingers or toes, associated with interference with oxygenation

9

hypoxia

decreased O2

10

hypercapnia

increased arterial CO2

11

adalyctasis

closing off of small airways

12

respiratory failure

inadequate gas exchange in lungs (more CO2 than O2)

13

what is respiratory failure associated with

post-surgical patients

14

chest was restriction

chest wall is unable to expand normally due to deformity, trauma, impairment or respiratory muscles (drug overdose), excess adipose tissue

15

flail chest

fracture of several consecutive ribs and/or sternum (common in MVA)

16

pneumothorax

air enters theoretical space between pleura and chest wall and becomes a real space; lungs cant expand much

17

2 types of pleural effusion

transudative effusion
exudative effusion

18

transudative effusion

fluid diffuses from capillaries into pleura, usually due to interference with starling-landis (CHF, hypoproteinemia from liver or kidney disease)

19

exudative effusion

fluid diffuses into pleura usually due to inflammaton or infection

20

empyema

presence of pus in exudate

21

compression

external pressure on lungs

22

absorption

gradual absorption of air from alveoli not actively inflated with new air, can also be caused by certain anesthetic agents

23

surfactant impairment

decreased production of surfactant; can be due to premature birth, anesthesia, mechanical ventilation

24

causes of atelectasis

compression
absorption
surfactant impairment

25

pulmonary fibrosis

excessive fibrous or connective tissue in the lung wall restricting expansion
-associated with infectious processes, exposure to toxic gasses
(typically due to scar tissue formation on lung wall)

26

pulmonary edema

excessive fluid in lungs

27

pulmonary edema typically associated with

cardiovascular disease, particularly CHF

28

obstructive pulmonary disease

airway obstruction that is worse with expiration (permanent collapse or airways)

29

obsructive pulmonary disease most common in what diseases

asthma
chronic bronchitis
emphysema

30

asthma

excessive and/or inappropriate bronchoconstriction and inflammation

31

signs and sx of asthma

recurrent, episodic bouts of coughing, SOB, chest, tightness, and wheezing

32

most patients diagnosed with asthma by age ___

5

33

african americans are (more/less) likely to to die or be hospitalized due to asthma than caucasians

more

34

first __ years appear to be important in development of asthma

2

35

lower risk of asthma in children who
(Hygiene Hypothesis)

live on farms
exposed to high levels of bacteria
have large numbers of siblings
early enrollment in child care
exposure to cats/dogs early in life
decreased antibiotic exposure

36

risk factors for asthma

low birth weight
male gender
parental smoking

37

dyspneic attacks

difficult labored breathing

38

characteristics of asthma

-contraction of smooth muscle
-mucosal thickening from edema and infiltration of cells
-presence of abnormally thick mucus

39

asthma thought to be caused by

reaction to an antigen which causes an immunologic response (does not explain all forms of asthma)
other idea: inappropriate overreaction of sympathetics

40

nonspecific bronchial hyper reactivity

occurrence of bronchospasm when there are stimuli that do not affect healthy airways (most likely an overreaction to sympathetics in lungs)

41

how is bronchial hyper reactivity measured?

measure FEV1 and its decrease after inhalation of histamine in aerosols

42

what is a normal FEV1

50-75% of vital capacity

43

bronchial hyper reactivity related to

airway inflammation

44

eosinophils

type of WBC

45

how are eosinophils related to asthma

people with asthma typically have higher numbers of eosinophils present in their airways
-correlated with degree of bronchial hyper reactivity

46

what population is COPD rare in

non-smokers

47

risk factors of COPD

cigarettes
air pollution
occupational exposure to dusts/gases
heredity
infection
allergies
aging

48

chronic bronchitis

presence of a productive cough for most days of at least 3 months during consecutive years

49

what do airways show in chronic bronchitis

mucous gland hyperplasia
mucous plugging
ciliated epithelia become squamous (defective mucocillary clearance)

50

risk factors for chronic bronchitis

live in an urban area
cigarette smoke
frequent respiratory infections in children
continued exposure to secondhand smoke

51

emphysema characterized by

alveolar and bronchiolar wall destruction with dilation of airways
-interferes with alveolar gas exchange and normal respiratory mechanics

52

causes of emphysema

smoking
pollutants
injury to epithelial cells (by inflammatory compounds)

53

alpha-1 antitrypsin

inhibits proteases and elastases