Pulmonary Effects: PaCO2 and Respiratory Mechanisms Flashcards Preview

Apex 4 - 5 Volatile Anesthetics II: Pharmacodynamics (11) > Pulmonary Effects: PaCO2 and Respiratory Mechanisms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary Effects: PaCO2 and Respiratory Mechanisms Deck (58)
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1

Regarding the modern halogenated anesthetics in the adult at 1 MAC:

Study on!!!!

2

The ----- in the medulla maintains tight control of PaCO2

Central chemoreceptor

3

Every 1 mmHg increase in PaCO2 above baseline will increase minute ventilation by --- L/min.

3L/min.

4

Volatile anesthetics cause a dose-dependent ----- of the central chemoreceptor and the respiratory muscles

"depression"

5

Volatile anesthetics cause a dose-dependent depression of the central chemoreceptor and the respiratory muscles. This contributes to

hypercarbia

6

Alteration of the respiratory pattern is a mechanism that contributes to hypercarbia when Volatile anesthetics are used

True

7

Impaired response to -----  is a mechanism that contributes to hypercarbia when Volatile anesthetics are used

Carbon dioxide

8

Impaired motor neuron output and muscle tone to the upper airway and thoracic muscles is a mechanism that contributes to hypercarbia when Volatile anesthetics are used

True

9

How do Volatile anesthetics alter the Respiratory Pattern?

Let's find out!

10

Volatile anesthetics ----- Tidal volume

"Decrease"

11

Volatile anesthetics decrease Tidal volume. Increased ----- partially compensates for the reduction in tidal volume

 

Respiratory rate

12

Volatile anesthetics decrease Tidal volume. Increased Respiratory rate partially compensates for the reduction in tidal volume, although not enough to prevent a rise in

PaCO2

13

How do Volatile anesthetics impair the Response to Carbon Dioxide?

Good question!

14

The ----- of the CO2 response curve represents the sensitivity of the entire respiratory apparatus to PaCO2

Slope

15

Volatile anesthetics ----- the  response to carbon dioxide

"decrease"

16

Volatile anesthetics decrease the response to carbon dioxide. This shifts the CO2 response curve -----.

Down and to the right

17

The PaCO2 at which a patient is stimulated to breathe is otherwise known as:

Apneic threshold

18

Volatile anesthetics ----- Apneic threshold

"increased"

19

Assisted ventilation does not significantly offset the rise in PaCO2

True

20

Assisted ventilation does not significantly offset the rise in PaCO2. The apneic threshold is usually --- to --- mmHg spontaneous ventilation.

3 - 5 mmHg

21

Assisted ventilation does not significantly offset the rise in PaCO2. The apneic threshold is usually 3 - 5 mmHg below the PaCO2 maintained during spontaneous ventilation. If ventilation is assisted to below the apneic threshold, the patient simply will -----.

"not breathe"

22

Assisted ventilation does not significantly offset the rise in PaCO2. The apneic threshold is usually 3 - 5 mmHg below the PaCO2 maintained during spontaneous ventilation. If ventilation is assisted to below the apneic threshold, the patient simply will not breathe. If the PaCO2 has risen to 55 mmHg, and you assist the patient you will only be able to reduce the PaCO2 to --- to --- mmHg before they stop breathing

50 - 52 mmHg

23

Assisted ventilation does not significantly offset the rise in PaCO2. The apneic threshold is usually 3 - 5 mmHg below the PaCO2 maintained during spontaneous ventilation. If ventilation is assisted to below the apneic threshold, the patient simply will not breathe. If the PaCO2 has risen to 55 mmHg, and you assist the patient you will only be able to reduce the PaCO2 to 50 - 52 mmHg before they stop breathing. To reduce the PaCO2 further would require -----.

Controlled ventilation

24

A right shift of the CO2 response curve implies that for a given PaC02 the minute ventilation would be ----- than predicted

Less than predicted

25

A right shift of the CO2 response curve implies that for a given PaC02 the minute ventilation would be less than predicted. This creates a respiratory -----.

Acidosis

26

A left shift of the CO2 response curve implies that for a given PaC02 the minute ventilation would be ----- than predicted

More than predicted

27

A left shift of the CO2 response curve implies that for a given PaC02 the minute ventilation would be more than predicted. This creates a respiratory

alkalosis

28

These acid-base disturbances are ----- of the shifted curves.

A. effects

B. causes

Effects

29

Causes of Right Shift of the CO2 response curve:

A. Depress Ventilation

B. Stimulate Ventilation

Depress Ventilation

30

General anesthetics depress Ventilation and causes of ----- Shift of the CO2 response curve

 

Right Shift