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Clinical Medicine- Pulmonary > Pulmonary nodules > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary nodules Deck (13):
1

What are the measurment sizes from nodule and masses?

Nodule = 3cm, mass > 3cm

2

Approximately _______ percent of nodules represent malignancy depending on the age group?

50%

3

What are some causes of single pulmonary nodules (SNP)?

Malignancy of lung or metastases, benign tumors, infectious causes, vascular malformations, inflammatory lesions

4

Malignant causes of SPN?

Primary lung cancer is most common cause. Adenocarcinoma most common type that presents SPN. Others include squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma.

5

What is the difference between primary lung cancer and metastasis from another site?

These normally present with multiple nodules

6

These patients have higher risk of malignancy?

Smokers, family history of lung cancer, female, COPD/emphysema, prior malignancy, asbestos exposure

7

What size nodule means you have a 50% of malignant nodule?

>2cm

8

What types of nodules have a higher risk of malignancy?

Semi-solid nodule (heterogeneous appearance), SPICULATED (worse=90%), upper lobes, asymmetric calcification?

9

Nodules that are stable for how many years are likely to be benign?

Solid nodule-2 years
Semi-solid nodule- 3 years

10

Reasons for benign SPN?

Infectious granulomas (most common), histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis, mycobacterium TB, inflammatory lesions, vascular lesions

11

What is hamartomas?

Benign lung nodules composed of tissue such as fat, muscle, and cartilage. Appears as "popcorn calcification"

12

All patients with a finding of SPN on CXR should have this?

CT scan

13

What is PET and how does it work?

Positron Emission Tomography. Patients are given radioactive tracer (F-fluorodexyglucose (FDG)). Cancer cells have higher uptake of glucose and this causes them to light up on PET scans