Flashcards in pulmonary pathology- part 2 Deck (35):
T/F: any organism can cause pneumonia
what are the predisposing factors for pneumonia?
loss of cough reflex
injury to cilia
the clinical signs for pneumonia include what?
cough, dyspnea, fever, chills, sputum production
___________ is clinically seen as a patchy process, which begins around the SMALL bronchi
streptococcus pneumoniae is found in 90% of ________ pneumonia
what form of pneumonia is seen in healthy adults?
what are the stages of lung inflammation during pneumonia?
2. Red Hepatization
3. Gray Hepatization
what are the 2 potential outcomes of pneumonia resolution?
complete resolution or a scar formation
what are the 4 possible complications from a pneumonia infection?
Atypical (interstitial) Pneumonia is a result of ____________ and certain viruses
what is the pathology of atypical pneumonia?
hyaline membranes (diffuse alveolar damage)
______________ has the same histological features as interstitial pneumonia
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
what are the causes of ARDS?
shock, infections, trauma, drug overdose, irritants
what occurs during ARDS?
**injury to endothelium and alveolar epithelium**
increased endothelial permeability (leaky)
aspiration, septic emboli, and airway obstruction are a common predisposing factor for ________
_____________ is the most common infectious cause of death . it infects 1/3 of the worlds population
what are the predisposing factors for contracting tuberculosis?
HIV infection, overcrowding, poor living conditions, immigrants
what are the physical characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria?
bacillus (rod), aerobe, non-motile, slow growing
has waxy coat - resists acid destaining
Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB)
M tuberculosis infections are characterized by "classic tissue reactions" called _________________
**caseating granulomatous inflammation **
what is a ghon lesion? what about a ghon complex?
Ghon lesion - site of early infection
Ghon complex - lung lesion + hilar lymph nodes
granulomatous inflammation is usually associated with TB infections, but can also be seen in patients with __________
what can cause a resolved TB infection to reactivate?
immunosenescence (immune system weakens with age), immunosuppressive treatment
________ tuberculosis results from spread via lymphatics or blood (lymphohematogenous)
what type of cancer is responsible for more deaths than any other?
what are the risk factors for lung cancer?
what are the major cancer types associated with the pathology of lung cancer?
squamous cell carcinoma (25-30%)**
small cell (oat cell) (20-25%)**
[the stars signify cancer from smoking.... 45-55% total]
what is the prognosis for lung cancer?
5-year survival all types = 16%
If localized when found = 45%
______________ are a group of lung disorders caused by inhalation of dusts/particles
inhaled particles induce ________ in the lungs
what are the important factors that determine the amount of damage a particle will do to the lung?
size, shape, concentration of particles
"coal worker's pneumoconiosis" is characterized by what?
nodular or diffuse fibrosis with coal macules
progressive massive fibrosis
_____________ is the most prevalent form of occupational disease worldwide
what types of hormones can be released by cancer cells in the lung? what syndrome does this release of hormones cause?
- ADH, ACTH, PTH
- Paraneoplastic syndromes
what is the effect of reactivation of a dormant TB infection?
induces type IV hypersensitivity and tissue necrosis