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Flashcards in pulmonary pathology- part 2 Deck (35):
1

T/F: any organism can cause pneumonia

TRUE

2

what are the predisposing factors for pneumonia?

loss of cough reflex
injury to cilia
decreased phagocytosis
pulmonary edema
immunocompromised condition

3

the clinical signs for pneumonia include what?

cough, dyspnea, fever, chills, sputum production

4

___________ is clinically seen as a patchy process, which begins around the SMALL bronchi

Bronchopneumonia

5

streptococcus pneumoniae is found in 90% of ________ pneumonia

lobar pneumonia

6

what form of pneumonia is seen in healthy adults?

lobar pneumonia

7

what are the stages of lung inflammation during pneumonia?

1. Congestion
2. Red Hepatization
3. Gray Hepatization
4. Resolution

8

what are the 2 potential outcomes of pneumonia resolution?

complete resolution or a scar formation

9

what are the 4 possible complications from a pneumonia infection?

Empyema
Abscess
Pericarditis
Bacteremia

10

Atypical (interstitial) Pneumonia is a result of ____________ and certain viruses

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

11

what is the pathology of atypical pneumonia?

interstitial inflammation

mononuclear cells

congestion

hyaline membranes (diffuse alveolar damage)

12

______________ has the same histological features as interstitial pneumonia

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

13

what are the causes of ARDS?

shock, infections, trauma, drug overdose, irritants

14

what occurs during ARDS?

**injury to endothelium and alveolar epithelium**

increased endothelial permeability (leaky)

15

aspiration, septic emboli, and airway obstruction are a common predisposing factor for ________

pulmonary abscesses

16

_____________ is the most common infectious cause of death. it infects 1/3 of the worlds population

tuberculosis

17

what are the predisposing factors for contracting tuberculosis?

HIV infection, overcrowding, poor living conditions, immigrants

18

what are the physical characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria?

bacillus (rod), aerobe, non-motile, slow growing
has waxy coat - resists acid destaining
Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB)

19

M tuberculosis infections are characterized by "classic tissue reactions" called _________________

**caseating granulomatous inflammation**

20

what is a ghon lesion? what about a ghon complex?

Ghon lesion - site of early infection

Ghon complex - lung lesion + hilar lymph nodes

21

granulomatous inflammation is usually associated with TB infections, but can also be seen in patients with __________

**histoplasmosis**


(or sarcoidosis)

22

what can cause a resolved TB infection to reactivate?

immunosenescence (immune system weakens with age), immunosuppressive treatment

23

________ tuberculosis results from spread via lymphatics or blood (lymphohematogenous)

military

24

what type of cancer is responsible for more deaths than any other?

lung cancer

25

what are the risk factors for lung cancer?

cigarette smoking
asbestos
radon gas

26

what are the major cancer types associated with the pathology of lung cancer?

squamous cell carcinoma (25-30%)**

adenocarcinoma (30-35%)

small cell (oat cell) (20-25%)**

[the stars signify cancer from smoking.... 45-55% total]

27

what is the prognosis for lung cancer?

5-year survival all types = 16%
If localized when found = 45%

28

______________ are a group of lung disorders caused by inhalation of dusts/particles

Pneumoconioses

29

inhaled particles induce ________ in the lungs

fibrosis (scarring)

30

what are the important factors that determine the amount of damage a particle will do to the lung?

size, shape, concentration of particles

31

"coal worker's pneumoconiosis" is characterized by what?

nodular or diffuse fibrosis with coal macules

progressive massive fibrosis

32

_____________ is the most prevalent form of occupational disease worldwide

Silicosis

33

what types of hormones can be released by cancer cells in the lung? what syndrome does this release of hormones cause?

- ADH, ACTH, PTH

- Paraneoplastic syndromes

34

what is the effect of reactivation of a dormant TB infection?

induces type IV hypersensitivity and tissue necrosis

35

90-95% of _______ Tuburculosis cases resolve

primary cases