Pulmonary Phys II: Airflow and Pathologies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pulmonary Phys II: Airflow and Pathologies Deck (34):
1

What 3 factors provide resistance to airflow?

Surface tension of alveoli
Pulmonary compliance
Diameter of bronchioles

2

_________helps to reduce the surface tension in alveoli

Surfactant

3

Surfactant molecules pile up into a thicker layer because their _________ regions resist separation from the water below. As they become crowded into a small area and resist layering, they slow and then halt the ________of the alveolus.

hydrophilic
collapse

4

What condition results from insufficent surfactant?

IRDS- Infant respiratory distress syndrome

5

What is IRDS?

Infant respiratory distress syndrome-
Premature infants have a deficiency of surfactant and experience great difficulty breathing

6

What is pulmonary compliance?

The ease with which the lungs expand

7

Whta happens with greater pulmonary compliance?

The easier it is for a change of pressure to case expansion of the lungs (ventilation)

8

Name 3 diseases that reduce pulmnocary compliace

Tuberculosis
Pulmonary fibrosis
Black lung disease

9

Which disease occurs when nodules form in the lung?

Tuberculosis

10

What is black lung disease?

Coal dust in lungs reduces compliance

11

What is pulmonary fibrosis?

Replacement of lung tissue with inelastic fibrous CT

12

How to bronchioles change in diameter?

Smooth muscle changes diamter

13

What is the term for increasing or decreasing the diamter of bronchioles?

Increase: Bronchodilation
Decrease- Bronchoconstriction

14

What are 2 bronchodilators?

Epinephresine and SNS

15

What are 6 bronchoconstrictors?

Anaphylactic shock
Histamine (also vasodilates)
PNS
Cold Air
Chemical irritants
Asthma

16

Whta is the volume of anatomic dead air space?

150 mL

17

With pulmonary disease, which 2 fators decrease pulmonary exchange?

1- Low flow to damaged areas
2- Edema in the lungs/ thickening of respiratory membrane

18

What is pathalogic dead air space?

Dead air space caused by tissue damage or injury

19

What is physiological dead air space?

Anatomic dead air space and any pathologic dead air space
What is not used for gas exchange

20

What is blood acidosis?

blood pH lower than 7.35

21

What is blood alkalosis?

blood pH higher than 7.45

22

What is the normal range for blood PCO2?

37-43 mmHg

23

What is the most common cause of blood acidosis?
What is the PCO2?

Hypercapnia
PCO2 >43 mmHg

24

What is tx for hypercapnia?

hyperventilation to blow off extra CO2.
Equation shifts to the right, so H+ is consumed
pH rises and blood returns to normal range

25

What is the most common cause of blood alkalosis?
What is the PCO2?

Hypocapnia
PCO2

26

What is the tx for hypocapnia?

Hypoventilation, allowing CO2 to accumulate in the body fluids faster than is exhaled.
Equation shifts right, raising H+ concentration
pH lowers to normal range

27

______ is a deficiency of O2 in a tissue, or the inability to use O2 is often marked by ________, or a blue tinge to tissue.

Hypoxia
Cyanosis

28

Whta is ischemic hypoxia?

Inadequate circulation of blood

29

Whta is the cause of histoxic hypoxia?

Caused by metabolic poison,

30

Whta in an example of a poison that causes hystotoxic hypoxia? How does it work?

cyanide which prevents tissues the tissues from using the O2 delivered to them by stopping e- transport

31

What causes hypoxemia hypoxia?

Inadequate pulmonary gas exchange

32

What are some potential causes of hypoxemic hypoxia?

high altitude, drowning, aspiration of foreign object
Respiratory arrest
CO poisoning- prevents Hb from carrying O2

33

What is AVR?

Alveolar ventilation rate- exchangeable air in 1 minute
350 mL of each 500 mL in tidal breath is exchanged

34

How is AVR calculated?

AVR= 350 mL x 12 breaths/min = 4,200 mL/minute
The AVR is the most directly relevant to the body’s ability to get O2 to the tissues and to dispose of CO2.