Flashcards in PX- Chapter 11 : Building Systems And Construction Deck (83):
Glass block, concrete block or brick
Interior wall assembly and thicknesses
1/2" drywall with 2x4 studs 16" on Center
Commercial wall assembly and thicknesses
2.5" steel studs with 5/8" drywall
Why do drywall edges need to be finished
Because the edges are rough
Types of drywall edges
Lc bead finished with compound. Front and back flange so fitted before drywall is on
L bead finished with compound , trim with front flange only, can be installed after two is up
U bead edge isn't finished with compound, edge is visible.
Lk bead finished with compound with use in a kerfed jamb or jamb with notch in it.
1 hour fire rated steel wall assembly
Slab to slab studs, 5/8 single layer of type X drywall on each side
2 hours fire rated commercial wall assembly
two layers of 5/8" thick type x drywall on 2.5" steel studs
what is used in commercial buildings for partitions that go slab to slab at the top
slip joint- to prevent th wall from being damaged if the structural floor above defects.
what are some advantages to using GWB partitions
low install cost, quick and easy installation, fire resistance, sound control capability, easy availability, versatility, ease of finishing, and ease of installation of doors and windows or other openings
Disadvantages of using GWB for partitions
can't really recycle it, creates a lot of waste when the building is demolished
sizes of GWB panels
4 x 8,10, 12, 14 feet.
thicknesses from 1/4" to 5/8"
special 3/4" thick drywall that has 2 hour fire rating using a single layer so you don't have to double up layers. Whats the difference between this an Type X board?
what level of drywall finishing is used for putting tile over
Level 2- all joints and interior angles have tape and joint compound and one coat of compound applied over joints etc. where you wont see it
level of drywall finishing for painting over and wallpapering over
level 5 is for glossy paints or semi gloss paint or flat paint- a layer of thin skim coat is applied over the whole panel- so 3 coats of compound are applied to t he joints plus a skim coat
Level 4 is ok for eggshell finishes i think? just three coats of compound in the joints. this is what you wallpaper over
types of steel framing for partitions
steel studs to in to floor and ceiling runners for typical walls
hat shaped furring channels- used for ceiling framing or to furr out from concrete or masonry walls
resilient channels- used to improve acoustical properties of a wall by isolating wallboard from rigid attachment to the framing. acts like furring out from the steel studs instead of concrete wall
what is glass reinforced gypsum (GRG), what is it used for and name pros and cons
broad class of products made from high strength, high density gypsum reinforced with continuos-filament glass fibre or chopped glass fibres. used for decorative elements like column covers, arches etc. Pre-manufactured by pouring in to moulds. can be finished like any way you'd finish regular gypsum walls. Pro- lots of good shapes. Con- expensive
what is lath and plaster, when is it used, pros and cons
plaster- made from gypsum, lime, water & sand. can add vermiculite when you want some fire resistance added in. applied over several kinds of base materials in one to three coats to form a smooth level surface
edges must be finished with trim like regular walls.
pro-used for when curved shapes are required (like brentwood ceiling) or when you need a harder more abrasion resistant surface
con- more expensive than gwb partitions and also a lot slower to install.
types of lath and plaster backing material
metal lath & gypsum lath
Metal lath- 3 layers of plaster- lath is applied to metal or wood studs and plastered over. first coat is called the scratch coat. second coat is brown coat which is used to level the surface. final finish coat
gypsum lath- only requires one or two coats of veneer plaster. faster than metal lath
when would you specify a masonry interior wall and what do you need to do when specifying it
in a reno project to match existing concrete block. or in a school dorm or something like that or where you wanted a fire resistant rating and didn't want to use gwb. make sure the floor load is meant to handle the extra weight of the heavy masonry interior wall
glass block can't be load bearing. should always be stack bond (straight not brick style)
whats a demountable partition and when would you use one (pros and cons)
system of individual components that can be quickly assembled and disassemble and reuse with very little waste. Basically a mobile wall.
Pro- life cycle costs are low because you save material and labour
Con- higher initial cost than regular walls. need to be coordinated with other building components like HVAC and lighting
Types of interior partitions
Gypsum wall board, lath and plaster and masonry
what are the major components to doors
door itself, frame and the hardware (including the hinge)
what is the name of the side of the door jamb where the hinge is installed for the door
what is the name of the door jamb where the door closes to
the strike jamb or the strike side of the door
most popular door material for both residential and commercial doors
what types of doors are ok to use as an exit door
swing doors only- NOT POCKET DOORS
what is a hollow core door and when are they used
veneer on either side of a cellular interior with wood blocks with the latching hardware is.
used where light traffic is expected and cost is an issue- they have no fire rating capabilities
what is a solid core door and when is it used
there are a variety of core types depending on functional requirements
used for fire resistive properties, acoustical barriers, security and durability
can have 20, 45 or 90 min fire ratings
typical sizes of wood doors
24, 28, 30, 32, 36 wide
6'-8" or 7'-0" high
hollow core doors are 1 3/8" thick
solid core doors are 1 3/4" thick
what types of door frames are fire rated
when a fire rating over 20 min is required, steel frames are almost always ussed.
aluminum frames are ok for 20 min fire ratings.
standard wood frames can be used in 20 min assemblies
when would you use a steel door and why
not in residential construction but in commercial because of their durability, security and fire resistive qualities
what are three types of steel doors
1. flush- single smooth surface on both sides
2. sash- have one or more glass lights
3. louvered- have openings with metal slats to provide ventilation
most common finish is painted finish.
what is the difference between steel and aluminum door frames and why would you use one
mainly used for glass door frames or wood doors.
pro- lightweight and easily assembled.
manufactured by extrusion, can have intricate shapes and square edges
typical thickness of a glass door
1/2" or 3/4"
why must a glass door be tempered and what should you know about tempered glass doors. fire rating info
because a full glass door is a potential hazard, extra strength is required.
cannot be site modified- must be made as is with holes already drilled.
can't be used as a fire rated door
what determines how many hinges a door has
the door height
up to 60" is 2 hinges
60-90 is 3 hinges
90-120 is four hinges
name the types of locksets and pros and cons for all.
1. cylindrical (just a deadbolt and push button on lever- no separate latch bolt)- simple to install and cheapest. most common for residential but can be used for commercial
2. mortise lock has both a deadbolt and latch bolt with key. installed in a cut out in the door. More secure
3. preassembled lock - aka unit has latch bolt and auxiliary dead latch with key. fits in a notch in the door. Easier to install than mortice
what are two types of pivot hinges and what's the difference
1. offset pivot hing- used for tall and heavy doors with a center pivot to prevent warping. can only swing one way and you can see them
2. center hung- door can swing in either direction and are complexity concealed
what are fire rated seals for doors and where do you put them
on fire doors to prevent smoke and drafts from passing through. have been tested for use on ire doors. put them on the head and jamb sections. usually made from neoprene
what type on hinges must a fire rated door have
stainless steel or steel
what type of glass is standard glass and why
float glass- used in most windows and other applications where additional strength or other properties are not required- aka just regular glass- not safety glass
what is tempered glass and how is it made and what are it's applications
putting regular float glass in to a special heat treatment that makes it 4 x stronger than float glass of the same thickness
pro- it's a safety glass so it can be used in hazardous locations
usually 1/4" thick
can't be cut or drilled once tempered
what is laminated glass, and what would you use it for
has two or more layers of glass with a layer of something in between. when the glass breaks, the layer in between keeps the glass from falling.
can be made with tempered glass.
great for acoustical control
is a safety glazing
can be cut in the field
impact resistance is low unless tempered glass is used
what is wired glass and where would you use it
glass that has a mesh of wire embedded in the middle of the sheet of glass.
usually used mostly in fire fated assemblies if it's not a hazardous location.
it can't be tempered
name four other fire rated types of glass besides wire, laminated and tempered.
1. clear ceramic- more impact resistant than wire glass and can be 1 hour fire rated in a small size or 3 hours in an even smaller size. Not a safety glass unless it's a laminated assembly
2. tempered fire-protective glass- 30 min max but it is safety glass because it passes the impact safety standards
3. two to three layers of tempered glass with something in between them that turns opaque when heated which slows the passage of heat. 30, 60 or 90 min ratings available
4. glass block- must be special fire rated, not all glass block is fire rated.
Name two ways a glass partitions/openings can be installed and how they are installed
1. framed glass- has a removable stop, casing/trim & base
2. frameless- uses a u-channel (either recessed or not) at the bottom and can run up to top of ceiling tiles.
what are limitations on using glass in walls according to the building code
can't be more than 25% of the length of the wall
however fire resistant glass is not subject to this because it's a wall assembly not a window assembly.
what is a hazardous location for when you need to use safety glass
those locations subject to human impact
like- glass doors, shower & bath enclosures & walls
what types of glass are considered safety glass
tempered or laminated glass
When is safety glass required in a wall?
- less than 9 square feet
- 24" or more away from a door 18" or higher above the ground
- large window with solid shelf or something that is 34-38" aff and 1.5" thick minimum
- if 24" or less away from a door and less than 60" from the ground
- a full height window
what parts of a door assembly are tested to be a fire rated door
assembly consists of the door, the frame and the hardware used on the door and frame
typical commercial fire rated door is how long of a fire rating
20 min door in a 1 hour rated exit access corridor
after how many minutes do you have to use a steel door for fire rated assembly
1.5 hours- after this you need a metal door.
when a fire door opening is used, what must be listed on the label and why
door, frame and closer and any other hardware passes the NFPA 80 test etc and is suitable for use.
in a commercial ceiling, why would the gwb ceiling be suspended
to make room for piping, electrical conduit, ducts
what is one main draw back to using suspended gwb ceiling in a commercial space
you need pre fab access panels to access the plenum and the stuff above it. they are ugly. try and use gwb where you don't need access panels.
name three types of ceiling tile grid installations and which is the most common
1. lay-in exposed grid- most common- tiles simply laid on top of the grid- no notches, nothing, most simple
2. lay in tegular- notch for the grid in the edges of the tile
3. completely concealed- usually only used with 12 x 12 tiles.
what is the point to using a suspended acoustical ceiling tile system vs a gwb ceiling
they provide a finished ceiling with access and to absorb instead of reflect sound like a gwb ceiling which reduces the noise level in a space.
if the return air is in the plenum, what can't you have in the plenum
no combustable material is to be placed in the plenum and that all plastic wiring is run in metal conduit
what is an integrated ceiling and why would you use one
suspended ceiling systems specifically designed to acommodate acoustical ceiling tile, lights and HVAC grilles, sprinklers and partition attachment.
used in commercial spaces where partitions, lights and other elements change frequently
more expensive than standard acoustical ceiling tiles but cheaper if the space changes a lot
what is stainless steel used for in ornamental ways- what are it's advantages, how is it sold, what are the finishes
- corrosion resisent
- looks nice
comes in sheets, plates, strips, pipes and tubing.
rolled finish- sheet material passed between rollers under pressure. finish will depend on the type of rollers- you can get reflective or textured or patterns. Least expensive option
polished finish- most common- made by grinding and polishing and buffing it .
etched finishes- dry or wet made. dry is blasting the metal with abrasive material to wear away defined areas. wet etching uses acid to wear off some of the finish
what are the level of numbers of polished metal finish for sheet and strip
7 = almost mirror like
3 = dull
everything in between
what is the predominant alloy of bronze and brass
copper. they are both used to describe a range of copper alloys.
whats the difference between bronze and brass
brass= alloy of copper and zine
bronze = alloy of copper and 2% or more of tin- most interior bronze is really just brass.
what forms does brass/bronze come in
sheet, plate, bar stock, tubing and pipe. it can be extruded and cast. extruded = door and window frames, railings and trim.
cast = hardware and plumbing fixtures
what finishes does brass/bronze come in
1. mechanical- alters the surface by rolling it
2. Chemical - alter the surface with chemical process
3. Coating - coatings are applied
what are some disadvantages to using polished metal
- harder to conceal scratches
- harder to refinish
- will show variations in flatness
what's the difference between brazing, soldering and welding metal
1. brazing - joining to two metals at intermediate temperatures using a nonferrous filler metal- 800 degrees. most often used but the joint needs to be concealed because it wont match the brass.
2. soldering - joining of two metals using lead or tin based solder that melts below 500 degrees
3. welding- joins two metals by using high temperatures with or without a filler metal
what are some examples of finish carpentry
stairs, doors, windows and their trim, baseboard, moulding, site built stairs, handrails
whats the difference between finish carpentry and architectural woodwork
architectural- is custom shop fabricated millwork and can be made of multiple materials
what is the most important thing to specify when specifying finish carprentry
the grade of lumber which determines the number of allowable defects. grading depends on species of wood and the trade organization doing the grading.
typically grade B is good for painted or natural finishing but supply is limited.
type C has slightly less defects and best for painting.
what are some benefits for vertical grain cut wood vs horizontal
vertical tends to warp less and are more abrasion resistant and stain more uniformly
what are the veneer grades
N- intended for a nautral finish and is made of all heartwood or sapwood
A- smooth and paintable with a few knots or defects
D- lowest grade, large unfilled knotholes
what is a stairway
one or more flights of stairs
what is a step
the portion of egress achieving a change in elevations by a single riser
what is a flight of stairs
series of two or more risers between one floor or one landing and the next
what is the stair tread and risers by code in commercial and residential stairs
commercial: 7" riser, 11" tread
residential: 7.75" riser, 10" tread
how far does the nosing typically stick out from the riser
when would you use wood stairs vs metal stairs
wood stairs are used for residential (lots of options for prettyness) and metal for commercial
are finishes a building component
no. the finishes are the "icing" on the component
what does a building "construction" type mean and what does it tell you about the building
limit the area and height o buildings for safety reasons like limiting the spread of fire to adjacent buildings and the safe exit of occupants and collapse of the building- world trade center
construction includes structural framing, interior and exterior bearing walls, floor and roof.
what part of the HVAC system can interfere with furniture placement
thermostat locations- can't put a bookshelf over a thermostat.
when reading the mechanical engineers plan, a duct is labels 16 x 14. which is the height and which is the width
first number is width and second is height so it's 16 wide and 14 high.