PY- CH 1.3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PY- CH 1.3 Deck (32):
1

empirical approach (erfarenhetsmässigt tillvägagångssätt)

a method of developing knowledge based on evaluating evidence gathered from experiments and careful observation

2

scientific method

a method of inquiry (undersökning) involving careful observation and use of experimental methods

3

hypothesis

a precise prediction (förutsägelse) about the outcomes of an experiment

4

theory

a formulation that accounts for relationships among observed events or experimental findings in ways that make them more understandable and predictable

5

statistics

the branch (gren) of mathematics involving the tabulation, analysis, and interoperation (tolkning) of numerical data

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variable

a factor or measure that varies within an experiment or among individuals

7

replication (kopiering)

the attempt to duplicate findings

8

case study method

an in-depth study of one or more individuals

9

survey method

a research method in which structured interviews or questionnaires are used to gather information about groups of people

10

structured interview

an interview in which a set of specific questions is asked in a particular order

11

questionnaire

a written set of questions or statements to which people reply by marking their responses on an answer form

12

population

all the individuals or organisms that constitute particular groups

13

samples

subset (delmängd) of population

14

random sampling

a method of sampling in which each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected

15

social desirability bias (partiskhet)

the tendency to respond to questions in a socially desirable (önskvärt) manner

16

volunteer bias

the type of bias that arises when people who volunteer to participate in a survey or research study have characteristics that make them unrepresentative of the population from which they were drawn

17

naturalistic observat ion method

a method of research based on careful observation of behavior in natural settings

18

correlational (sambands) method

a research method used to examine relationships between variables, which are exposed in the form of a statistical measure called a correlation coefficient

19

correlation coefficient

a statistical measure of association between variables that can vary from -1.00 to +1.00

20

experimental method

a method of scientific investigation involving the manipulation of independent variables and observation or measurement of their effects on dependent variables under controlled conditions

21

independent variables

factors that are manipulated in an experiment

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dependent variables

the effect or outcomes of an experiment that are believed to be dependent on the values of the independent variables

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operational definition

a definition of a variable based on the procedures or operations used to measure it

24

control groups

grops of participants in a research experiment who do not receive the experimental treatment or intervention

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random assignment

a method of randomly assigning subjects to experimental or control groups

26

placebo (blindtablett)

an inert substance or experimental condition that resembles the active treatment

27

placebo (blindtablett) effects

positive outcomes of an experiment resulting from a participant's positive expectations about the treatment rather than from the treatment itself

28

single-blind studies

in drug research, studies in which subjects are kept uninformed about whether they are receiving the experimental drug or a placebo (blindtablett)

29

double-blind studies

in drug research, studies in which both participants and experimenters are kept uninformed about which participants are receiving the active drug and which are receiving the placebo (blindtablett)

30

ethics review committees

committees that evaluate whether proposed studies meet ethical guidelines

31

informed consent

agreement to participate in a study following disclosure of information about the purposes and nature of the study and its potential risks and benefits

32

critical thinking

the adoption of a skeptical, questioning attitude and careful scrutiny of claims or arguments