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Flashcards in PY- CH 2.7 Deck (17):
1

genotype

an organism's genetic code

2

genes

basic units of heredity (ärftlighet) that contain an individual's genetic code

3

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

the basic chemical material in chromosomes that carries an individual's genetic code

4

chromosomes

rodlike structures in the cell nucleus that house an individual's genes

5

chromosomes

rodlike structures in the cell nucleus that house an individual's genes

6

nature-nurture debate

the debate in psychology about the relative influences of genetics (nature) and environment (nurture) in determining behavior

7

phenotype

the observable physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism, representing the influences of the genotype and environment

8

polygenic traits

traits that are influenced by multiple genes interacting in complex ways

9

familial association studies

studies that examine the degree to which disorders or characteristics are shared among family members

10

identical twins

twins who developed from the same zygote and so have identical genes (also called monozygotic, or MZ, twins)

11

zygote

a fertilized egg cell

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fraternal twins

twins who developed from separate zygotes and so have 50% of their genes in common (also called dizygotic, or DZ, twins)

13

twin studies

studies that examine the degree to which concordance rates between twin pairs for particular disorder or characteristics vary in relation to whether the twins are identical or fraternal

14

concordance rates

in thin studies, the % if cases in which both members of twin pairs share the same trait or disorder

15

adoptee studies

studies that examine whether adoptees are more similar to their biological or adoptive parents with respect to their psychological traits or to the discover they develop

16

In humans, genetic factors ............... in complex ways with environmental influences in determining personality and intellectual development

interact

17

Three types of kinship studies are used to study the role of genetics in human behavior: ............... association studies which explore shared traits or disorders among family members; ................. studies, which compare convergence rates for traits or disorders between monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins; and .................... studies, which examine similarities between adopted children and their biological and adoptive parents

familial, twin, adoptee