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Flashcards in PY-TEST #1 Deck (41):
1

What is the complete definition of psychology?

The science of behavior and mental processes

2

Psychology made the transition form philosophy to science with which event?

Wundt opened hos laboratory in Leipzig

3

What term best captures the meaning f the word "gestalt"?

Pattern

4

The founder of behaviorism was?

Watson

5

A movement with modern psychology that applies principles from Darwin's theories is called, what?

evolutionary psychology

6

What is a growing movement in psychology directed toward studies of human experience such as hope, happiness, and altruism?

Positive psychology

7

What is the most common doctoral degree awarded in the field of psychology?

Ph.D.

8

An industrial/organizational psychologist would typically, do what?

make suggestions to a manager regarding employee morale

9

Dr. Burlington works with Ivy University's basketball team, where he helps the athletes handle competitive pressures. He is also conducting a study to determine the most important factors influencing athletic performance anxiety. Burlington what kind of psychologist?

sport

10

All of the following are steps in the scientific method EXCEPT, what?

ignoring contradictory evidence

11

The fundamental building block of the nervous system is the................, what?

neuron

12

The brain has ................. major parts and they are called the ......................, what?

hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

13

The brain has ................. major parts and they are called the ......................, what?

3 --> hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

14

Which part of the brain controls balance and coordination?

cerebellum

15

In the cerebral cortex, ................ is to vision as ................ is to hearing.

occipital; temporal

16

Damage to which proving of the cerebral cortex would most likely interfere with a person's hearing?

temporal lobe

17

After a car accident, Brandon lost some of his visual abilities. Based on this description of his injuries, which portion of Brandon's cerebral cortex was probably damaged in the accident?

occipital lobe

18

Which brain structure is described as the connection between the two cerebral hemispheres?

corpus callosum

19

Which parts of the forebrain are sometimes described as the "executive center" and can be likened to the central processing unit of a computer?

frontal lobes

20

Scientists use the term................ to describe the division of functions between the right and left hemispheres of the brain

lateralization

21

Who was a pioneer in the discovery of the language areas of the brain?

Paul Broca

22

Wrenches' area is associated with ......................, whereas Broca's area is associated with .............. .

language comprehension; language production

23

..................... is the brain's ability to adapt and reorganize itself following trauma or surgical alteration.

Plasticity

24

Psychologists refer to the state of awareness of ourselves and the world around us as................... what?

consciousness

25

Jonathan is in a state of focused awareness while he studies for his final exams. Jonathan's consciousness can be described as what?

divided attention

26

Daydreaming is most likely to occur during which type of consciousness?

drifting

27

Samantha simultaneously performs two different tasks, each of which demands some level of attention. Samantha's state of consciousness is best described as what?

divided consciousness

28

People who abuse more than one drug at a time are called what?

polyabusers

29

After repeatedly using a drug over six months, Elian's body chemistry has changed such that it depends on having a steady supply of the drug. Elian has developed what?

physiological dependence

30

You see your friend Leonid at a party. He is talking loudly and slurring his words. He also has trouble maintaining his balance. Leonid is probably under the influence of what?

alcohol

31

You see your friend Leonid at a party. He is talking loudly and slurring his words. He also has trouble maintaining his balance. Leonid is probably under the influence of what?

alcohol

32

What statement of of the following statements about marijuana is FALSE?

It has been shown that regular use leads to both psychological and physiological dependence

33

Most psychologist define learning as what?

a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

34

Who is most closely associated with classical conditioning?

Ivan Pavlov

35

Ivan Pavlov's initial research work was in the study of what subject?

digestive processes in dogs

36

In classical conditioning, a conditioned response can weaken and eventually disappear. This is referred to as what?

extinction

37

Through classical conditioning, Alyce has developed a fear of mice. She also shows a fear response to gerbils and hamster. Alyce is demonstrating what?

stimulus generalization

38

The Law of Effect was proposed by who?

Thorndike

39

Which of the following is the dest definition of reinforce?

a stimulus or event that increases the probability that te response it follows will be repeated

40

Your significant other gives you a compliment, and you smile at him/her. The probability that he/she will give you another compliment increases. This is an example of which type of learning?

Instrumental learning

41

Zorba gives his dog a treat for rolling over. Zorba explains this procedure as a form of what?

positive reinforcement