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Flashcards in Pyelonephritis Deck (30):
1

What are the symptoms of a urinary tract infection?

Cystitis (bladder infection)
- dysuria
- frequency
- urgency
- suprapubic pain
- haematuria
Pyelonephritis (infection of the kidney)
- fever (>38)
- chills/rigor
- flank pain
- costo-vertebral angle tenderness
- nausea and vomiting

2

What are the risk factors for a UTI?

Infancy (under 1 year)
Abnormal urinary tract (congenital/acquired)
Females
- anatomy
- sexual intercourse
- pregnancy
Bladder dysfunction/incomplete emptying
- constipation
- neurogenic bladder
- prostate enlargement
Diabetes
- glycosuria promotes bacterial growth
Renal transplant
Immunosuppression

3

Why are UTIs in childhood relevant?

More likely to indicate a structural abnormality
- congenital renal tract abnormality in up to 50% (vesico-ureteric reflux)
Can reduce risk of further damage
- renal scarring (irreversible)
- chronic kidney disease
- risk of hypertension increases with burden of scarring

4

What are the differential symptoms of an upper and lower tract UTI in children?

Upper tract
- lethargy
- general malaise
- vomiting
- loin pain
- fever
Lower tract
- non specific abdominal pain
- urgency
- frequency
- bed wetting
- frank haematuria

5

What clinical signs indicate a UTI might be acute pyelonephritis or an upper urinary tract infection?

Bacteriuria and fever with a temperature of 38 or above
Bacteriuria, loin pain/tenderness and fever of less than 38

6

What clinical signs indicate a UTI might be cystitis or a lower urinary tract infection?

Bacteruria and signs and symptoms of UTI that aren't systemic

7

How are UTIs diagnosed?

Multistix (leucocyte esterase and nitrite)
- useful in children >3 years
- positive for LE and nitrate indicates UTI
Microscopy and flow cytometry
- used when urine dipstick test is negative
- flow cytometry positive for pus cells and bacteria indicates a UTI
Urine culture

8

When are urine cultures done, and what would they show in a UTI?

Done in all children <3 years if there is clinical suspicion
- before antibiotics
Shows growth of a single organism
- be aware of contamination risk

9

How are UTIs managed?

Identification
- test urine
Antibiotic treatment
- best guess while awaiting cultures
- oral unless severely ill, vomiting or <3 months

10

What is the antibiotic treatment for a UTI?

Oral
- trimethroprim
- cephalosporin
- co-amoxiclav
- nitrofurantoin
IV
- 3rd gen cephalosporin (ceftriaxone)
- gentamicin

11

What antibiotics can be used as prophylaxis in children with vesicoureteral reflux?

Nitrofurantoin
Trimethoprim
Co-amoxiclav

12

What are the pros and cons of US use in UTIs?

Pros
- radiation free
- readily available
- good for dilated drainage tracts and cysts
Cons
- operator dependent
- less sensitive for scarring and parenchymal change

13

What are the pros and cons of MCUG in diagnosing the cause of UTIs?

Pros
- gold standard for VUR and PUV
Cons
- radiation
- invasive (UTI risk)

14

What are the pros and cons of DMSA in diagnosing the cause of UTIs?

Pros
- gold star for scars (decreased isoptope uptake)
- differential function
Cons
- timing (acute or chronic)
- differentiating a scar from dysplasia
- radiation

15

What are the pros and cons of an MAG3 indirect cystogram in diagnosing the cause of UTIs?

Pros
- used for VUR study with no catheter needed
- differential function
Cons
- need continence and co-operation on bladder emptying
- no PUV information
- misses low grade VUR

16

What are the pros and cons of an MAG3 diuresis renogram in diagnosing the cause of UTIs?

Pros
- gold standard for obstruction
Cons
- furosemide also needed to standardise the technique
- operator interpretation

17

What are the risk factors for renal scarring?

Age
High grade VUR
Anatomical obstruction
Dysfunctional voiding
Frequent episodes of APN
Therapeutic delay
Bacterial virulence factors
Host response
Low birth weight
Prenatal dysplasia

18

What are the most common congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract?

Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR)
- retrograde passage of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract
Obstruction of the urinary drainage tracts

19

What can US pick up antenatally?

Dilated drainage tracts
Renal parenchyma (bright kidneys)
Oligohydramnios (not enough amniotic fluid surrounding the baby - fluid is feotus urine)

20

What is an MCUG?

Micturating cysto-urethrogram
- catheterisation in order to fill the bladder with a radiocontrast agent
- dye is watched under fluroscopy
- in VUR, the dye moves back up into the ureters and renal pelvi-calyceal systems

21

Describe VUR.

Presents
- in utero as hydro-uretero-nephrosis
- postnatally as UTIs and pyelonephritis
Can cause renal scarring (most dysplasia done prenatally)
Can be low or high grade
- low grade very likely to spontaneously resolve

22

How is VUR and a UTI managed?

Medical
- antibiotic propylaxis for high grade VUR until they are toilet trained
Surgical
- when medical management fails (recurrent, febrile UTI or new scarring)
- STING procedure
- open ureteric re-implantation

23

At what levels can there be obstruction in the urinary tract?

Pelvis/ureter
Ureter
Ureter/bladder
Bladder
Urethra

24

How can there be an obstruction within the bladder?

Posterior urethral valve
- common congential cause among male infants
Prostatic hypertrophy
Function obstruction
(neurogenic)
- spina bifida
- transverse myelitis
- trauma
(prune belly syndrome - congenital absence of abdominal muscles)

25

What is a posterior urethral valve?

An obstructing membrane in the posterior urethra
- valve leaflets of circumferential diaphragm

26

What is the presentation of posterior urethral valve?

Antenatal hydronephrosis
Urinary tract infection
Poor urinary stream
Renal dysfunction - if missed for a long time

27

How is a PUV managed?

Valve resection
Antibiotic prophylaxis
Chronic kidney disease care

28

How do pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction present?

Abdominal mass
Pain
Haematuria
UTI

29

How do vesico-ureteric junction obstructions present?

Anatomical narrowing vs functional obstruction
Antenatal dilation
UTI
Abdominal mass
Pain
Haematuria

30

How are ureteric obstructions managed?

PUJO
- observant (USS and DMSA)
- pyeloplasty
VUJO
- observant (most resolve)
- surgery for symptoms or due to increasing dilation)
- resection and re-implantation